Thirdmill Study Bible

Notes on Luke 6:14-49

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Luke 6:14

Simon. Also named Peter by Jesus (Matt. 16:18; John 1:42). He always appears first in lists of disciples (Matt. 10:2-4; Mark 3:16-19; Acts 1:3), which indicates his leadership role as first among equals (Matt. 16:18). Andrew. Previously a fisherman, like his brother, Simon (5:2-9). He was from Bethsaida (John 1:44). James. . . John. The sons of Zebedee (5:10), also called the sons of thunder (Mark 3:17). Their mother, Salome, was Jesus's aunt, being Mary's sister (Matt. 27:56; Mark 15:40; John 19:25). This made James and John his cousins. They worked as fishermen with Simon and Andrew (5:10-11). John was known as the beloved disciple (John 13:23; 19:26; 20:2; 21:7, 20). He wrote write the Gospel that bears his name, three letters (1, 2, 3 John), and Revelation. James was an early martyr for the faith (Acts 12:1-2). Philip. From Bethsaida, he brought Nathanael to Jesus (John 1:43-48). Bartholomew. Probably also called Nathanael (John 1:45). This would account for Bartholomew not being mentioned in John's Gospel and Nathanael's absence from the other Gospels. Moreover, Nathanael is elsewhere mentioned among the apostles (John 21:2).

Luke 6:15

Matthew. Also called Levi, he was a wealthy tax collector (5:27-29; Matt. 9:9-13). After following Jesus, he hosted a feast and invited other sinners to meet Jesus (5:29-32). Thomas. Also called Didymus (John 11:26; 20:24; 21:2) his name meant twin. James son of Alphaeus. Because Levi is also called the son of Alphaeus (Mark 2:14), this could be his brother. Simon. Being a Zealot meant that he had been part of a group dedicated to holy war against Rome. Ironically, this would make Simon deeply opposed to Matthew's work of collaborating with Rome. Nevertheless, the grace of Jesus brought these men together.

Luke 6:16

Judas son of James. Possibly also named Thaddeus, who holds the same position in the list of apostles in other Gospels (Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18). Judas Iscariot. One who would ultimately betray Jesus to the Jews (22:3-6, 47-48; Acts 1:16-20). Iscariot could be a family name, but more likely comes from a region in Judea (Josh. 15:25; Jer. 31:24; John 6:71; 13:26).

Jesus's Sermon on the Plain - Luke 6:17-49

Having called his disciples to himself and set apart twelve as apostles, he taught them about his kingdom. Specifically, he presented the essentials of the lifestyle that would mark his disciples. This is not about how to enter the kingdom, but how the church ought to live in the world now that the kingdom of God has dawned. In this way, Jesus redefined life for his followers. There are many similarities and differences between these verses and Matt. 5:1–7:29. Some believe these are two separate events that included similar teaching material. It is possible that Jesus taught similar material at different times given the itinerate nature of his ministry, especially since this sermon is said to be on a "plain" and the one in Matthew is on a "mount." It is also possible, though less likely, that this is same sermon as the one in Matthew but edited differently for their respective audiences (Gentiles vs. Jews). This section begins with a summary introduction (6:17-19), followed by three sections of teaching (6:20-26; 6:27-38; and 6:39-49).

Luke 6:17

mountain . . . level place. Matthew only focused on the mountain as a location (Matt. 5:1). However, Luke further detailed that Jesus gathered people on a plain somewhere on the mountainside. disciples. The primary audience for this teaching (v. 20). Judea and Jerusalem . . . Tyre and Sidon. The old covenant people who were largely made up of the physical descendants of Abraham. Jesus was calling spiritual Israel to himself, made up of Jews and Gentiles (see Rom. 9:6-8; Gal. 3:7-9, 27-29). The inclusion of the Gentiles would begin in earnest much later, after Jesus death and resurrection (see Matt. 28:19; Acts 1:8; 10:1–11:26; 13:1-2). But there were already hints of it here (see 10:13-14).

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