Thirdmill Study Bible

Notes on Luke 6:13-49

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Luke 6:13

called . . . chose twelve. We have no idea how many disciples Jesus has following him at this time. Later, he will call out another group of seventy-two to be sent out (10:1). This indicates that the twelve were called out of a much larger group of followers (v. 17). From these, Jesus made a God directed choice (v. 12). Luke emphasized Jesus's authority in calling and choosing the twelve. named apostles. The term apostle means one who is sent. There is a sense in which all of Jesus's disciple are apostles (11:49; 24:10; John 20:21; Acts 14:14). However, this term is also used to mark out a unique group of Jesus's disciples. They were a group who had been following Jesus since the beginnings of his ministry (Acts 1:21-22). They were sent with authority to preach and heal, acting as Jesus's official representatives (9:1-6; Matt. 10:40; Mark 3:14).

Luke 6:14

Simon. Also named Peter by Jesus (Matt. 16:18; John 1:42). He always appears first in lists of disciples (Matt. 10:2-4; Mark 3:16-19; Acts 1:3), which indicates his leadership role as first among equals (Matt. 16:18). Andrew. Previously a fisherman, like his brother, Simon (5:2-9). He was from Bethsaida (John 1:44). James. . . John. The sons of Zebedee (5:10), also called the sons of thunder (Mark 3:17). Their mother, Salome, was Jesus's aunt, being Mary's sister (Matt. 27:56; Mark 15:40; John 19:25). This made James and John his cousins. They worked as fishermen with Simon and Andrew (5:10-11). John was known as the beloved disciple (John 13:23; 19:26; 20:2; 21:7, 20). He wrote write the Gospel that bears his name, three letters (1, 2, 3 John), and Revelation. James was an early martyr for the faith (Acts 12:1-2). Philip. From Bethsaida, he brought Nathanael to Jesus (John 1:43-48). Bartholomew. Probably also called Nathanael (John 1:45). This would account for Bartholomew not being mentioned in John's Gospel and Nathanael's absence from the other Gospels. Moreover, Nathanael is elsewhere mentioned among the apostles (John 21:2).

Luke 6:15

Matthew. Also called Levi, he was a wealthy tax collector (5:27-29; Matt. 9:9-13). After following Jesus, he hosted a feast and invited other sinners to meet Jesus (5:29-32). Thomas. Also called Didymus (John 11:26; 20:24; 21:2) his name meant twin. James son of Alphaeus. Because Levi is also called the son of Alphaeus (Mark 2:14), this could be his brother. Simon. Being a Zealot meant that he had been part of a group dedicated to holy war against Rome. Ironically, this would make Simon deeply opposed to Matthew's work of collaborating with Rome. Nevertheless, the grace of Jesus brought these men together.

Luke 6:16

Judas son of James. Possibly also named Thaddeus, who holds the same position in the list of apostles in other Gospels (Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18). Judas Iscariot. One who would ultimately betray Jesus to the Jews (22:3-6, 47-48; Acts 1:16-20). Iscariot could be a family name, but more likely comes from a region in Judea (Josh. 15:25; Jer. 31:24; John 6:71; 13:26).

Jesus's Sermon on the Plain - Luke 6:17-49

Having called his disciples to himself and set apart twelve as apostles, he taught them about his kingdom. Specifically, he presented the essentials of the lifestyle that would mark his disciples. This is not about how to enter the kingdom, but how the church ought to live in the world now that the kingdom of God has dawned. In this way, Jesus redefined life for his followers. There are many similarities and differences between these verses and Matt. 5:1–7:29. Some believe these are two separate events that included similar teaching material. It is possible that Jesus taught similar material at different times given the itinerate nature of his ministry, especially since this sermon is said to be on a "plain" and the one in Matthew is on a "mount." It is also possible, though less likely, that this is same sermon as the one in Matthew but edited differently for their respective audiences (Gentiles vs. Jews). This section begins with a summary introduction (6:17-19), followed by three sections of teaching (6:20-26; 6:27-38; and 6:39-49).

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