Thirdmill Study Bible

Notes on Luke 5:34-6:4

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Luke 5:34

wedding. Since weddings were marked by joy, a religious act of mourning was inappropriate. bridegroom. An Old Testament picture of God in relationship to his people God (Isa. 54:5-6; 62:4-5; Jer. 2:2; Ezek. 16:8-14; Hos. 2:19-20). This imagery is applied to Jesus in the New Testament (2 Cor. 11:2-3; Eph. 5:24-27; Rev. 19:7-9; 21:2). His presence with this people was a time of joy, thus fasting wasn't appropriate.

Luke 5:35

taken away. A word of violence, which anticipates Jesus's death by crucifixion. Though Jesus would rise from the dead, he would also ascend back to the glory of his Father. they will fast. The time between Jesus's ascension and return is marked by joy (24:41, 52; Acts 8:8; 13:52). Nevertheless, it will be appropriate to long for his return with fasting (see Matt. 6:16-18; Rev. 22:20).

Luke 5:36-39

Jesus further explained why his disciples did not fast while he was with them (vv. 32-35). He used a parable to emphasize discontinuities with the past due to the newness of his kingdom. It would not fit the traditions and patterns of what came before. Jesus used two images to make this truth clear. new garment. A piece of cloth from an old garment had been used and washed. If used to repair a new garment, it would tear away when the new garment shrunk after washing. new wine. Wineskins were made of tanned animal skins. These were flexible and ideal for the gases produced by fermented wine. However, the skins eventually dried out and became brittle. If new wine was put into them, the skin would crack and break from the fermentation process. No one. The Pharisees had lives built completely around the old covenant. But the old covenant was pointing forward to something new, which had come in Jesus (22:20; Heb. 8:13). This new gospel could not simply be sown onto the old. But they could not see that and missed what Jesus was offering.

Luke 6:1

Sabbath. Along with circumcision, the Sabbath rule defined Israel's life and identity (Exod. 20:8-11; 31:12-17; 35:1-3). Obeying this command was an expression of faith in and love for God. Thus, one's regard for the Sabbath was a reflection of one's regard for God himself. At its simplest, the Sabbath command was about resting from work. More profoundly, it was meant to teach Israel to understand God's authority as Creator (Exod. 20:11) and power as Redeemer (Deut. 5:15). They were to rest from their labor in order to rest (trust) in him. picking . . . rubbing . . . eating. The law permitted such simple gleaning to satisfy hunger (Deut. 23:25).

Luke 6:2

Pharisees. See note on 5:17. not lawful. In their zeal for God's law, the Pharisees developed their own rules that interpreted and expanded God's commands. While the disciples' actions were allowed by the law, they violated the Pharisees' traditional rules about what could be done on the Sabbath (m. Shab. 7:2).

Luke 6:3-4

read. Jesus often answered questions and reframed debates by going back to Scripture itself, ignoring human tradition (see Mark 12:10, 16; Matt. 12:5; 19:4; 21:16). David. King of Israel who was anointed after God's own heart (1 Sam. 16:1-13; Acts 13:22). God made a covenant with him and his descents to remain on Israel's throne forever (2 Sam. 7:4-17; Ps. 89:19-37). By alluding to David, Jesus emphasized his role as the messianic Son of David (see notes on 1:27-33, 69; 2:3-4, 11). Jesus is David's greater son who is also David's Lord (20:41-44; Ps. 110:1). hungry. Before he took the throne in Israel, David was pursued by Saul, a wicked king. While on the run with men loyal to him, David was desperate for food and water when he came upon the tabernacle. The only food there was the bread of the presence. This was the consecrated bread that was laid before the Lord in the sanctuary as a reminder of their covenant fellowship with him (Lev. 24:5-8). Each Sabbath, twelve fresh loaves of bread were put out. Only the priests could eat the old bread that was taken away (Lev. 24:9). However, the priests recognized the need of David and his men and gave them the bread to eat (1 Sam. 21:1-6; see Lev. 19:18). If the Pharisees were going to condemn Jesus and his disciples for breaking their rule, they must also condemn David and his men for breaking God's law. Or, they must rethink their approach to understanding and obeying God's law.

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