Thirdmill Study Bible

Notes on Luke 23:43-51

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Luke 23:43

today. That very day Jesus would complete the work of salvation by offering his life for sinners (John 19:30). Like the parable of the Pharisee and the tax collector, those who crucified Jesus would miss the kingdom while the sinner who begged for mercy would see it (v. 42; 18:9-14). paradise. Term which here meant the dwelling place of the righteous in death (see 2 Cor. 12:3; Rev. 2:7). Jesus assured the man his faith has saved him (see 7:50; Eph. 2:8). He would be with Jesus (John 17:24). See WCF 4.2; 32.1; WLC 82, 85; WSC 37.

Luke 23:44-45

sixth hour . . . ninth hour. That is, approximately 12:00pm to 3:00pm. darkness. A sign of God's judgment in the past (Exod. 10:21-22). It was also prophesied to happen on the end-time Day of the Lord (Amos 8:9-10; Joel 2:10; Zeph. 1:15). The darkness signaled God's displeasure at Israel for rejecting and killing Jesus (22:53). It also signaled Jesus' work of enduring God's wrath against the sins of his people (Isa. 53:4-6; Rom. 3:25). For these three hours, Jesus felt the burden of God's judgment (Matt. 27:46).

Luke 23:45

This cannot be explained as a natural phenomenon. This was a supernatural sign from God (see note on v. 44). curtain. That which separated the most holy place from the rest of the temple (Lev. 21:23; 24:3; Heb. 9:1-5). Behind the curtain sat the Ark of the Covenant. It was the place the high priest went once a year to make atonement for the sins of the people (Lev. 16). Atonement is the removal of sin's consequences, ensuring peace between God and sinners (Lev. 5:10; 2 Cor. 5:18-21). However, no mere animal could ever atone for sin (Heb. 10:4). The old covenant sacrifices pointed forward to Jesus, the perfect sacrifice who could actually take away sin (Heb. 9:12; 10:10; 12-14) and bring peace with God (Col. 1:20; see Isa. 9:6). split. This massive, ornate curtain was sixty feet (eighteen meters) high and thirty feet (nine meters) wide (Exod. 26:31-37). Like the darkness, this was a supernatural sign for the people. Jesus had fulfilled the temple's purpose (John 1:14, 1:51, 2:18-22) and the way of salvation was now opened up for all people through him (John 4:20-24; Heb. 9:11-12, 24; 10:19-22).

Luke 23:46

Father. Having finished making atonement for sin, Jesus entrusted himself to God. He used the words of Scripture to express his confidence in the Father (Ps. 31:5; see 1 Pet. 4:19). died. Jesus' death was further evidence of his true humanity (1 John 1:1-2; see note on 1:35). He experienced the full consequences of sin, though he himself was without sin (Rom. 6:23; Heb. 4:15). By experiencing death and rising from the dead (9:22; 24:1-7), Jesus conquered sin for his people (2 Tim. 1:10; Heb. 2:14-15).

Luke 23:47

The Roman government found no fault in Jesus (v. 22). Neither did this centurion. Moreover, Matthew recorded the beginnings of faith in him (Matt. 27:54).

Luke 23:48

The crowds saw Jesus' innocence at his trial (v. 20-22), his graciousness from the cross (v. 34), and the darkness of God's displeasure (v. 44). All of this has not left them unchanged. They leave beating their breasts — a cultural sign of mourning and repentance.

Luke 23:49

Jesus' family and friends as well as some disciples saw his death (Pss. 38:11; 88:8).

Luke 23:50-51

Unlike the others, Joseph was a sincere worshipper of God. Though part of the Jewish leadership, he had not been part of their plan to kill Jesus. Council. The Jewish Sanhedrin (see note on 20:1). kingdom. Joseph was a disciple of Jesus, though perhaps secretly.

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