Thirdmill Study Bible

Notes on Luke 23:31-43

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Luke 23:31

Jesus emphasized the divine judgment behind Jerusalem's fall (vv. 28-30). tree is green . . . dry. A fire is best started and maintained with something old or dry rather than moist, green wood. Jesus used this imagery to indicate the severity of God's coming judgment. The Romans punished Jesus who would innocent, so even worse would happen to the guilty.

Luke 23:32

Jesus' death with criminals fulfilled the prophecy of Isa. 53:12.

Luke 23:33

The Skull. In Aramaic, it was called Golgotha (Mark 15:22). crucified. Jesus' crucifixion experience fulfilled several prophetic passages in the Old Testament (see Ps. 22:6-18; Isa. 50:6; 53:3-8, 10). However, the Gospel writers did not dwell on the well-known details of crucifixion (see Mark 15:25; Matt. 27:35; John 19:18). Rather than focus on the physical sufferings of Jesus, they highlighted his spiritual sufferings under God's wrath, which secured salvation for sinners (see notes on vv. 44-47).

Luke 23:34

forgive. Even in the face of cruel rebellion, Jesus was patient with sinners. His prayer did not excuse the Jews or Romans for their part in his wrongful execution (see note on vv. 19, 23-24). Instead, it showed that they did not fully understand the wickedness of their actions. They had crucified the Holy and Righteous Son of God (1:35; Acts 3:14) who came to save sinners as the promised Christ (2:11; 19:10). cast lots. The soldiers gambled for Jesus' clothing in fulfillment of Ps. 22:18. See BC 57.

Luke 23:35

Luke contrasted the response of the people and their leaders. mocking. The ridicule of the Jewish leaders fulfilled the prophetic experience of Ps. 22:7-8. save. Jesus could have easily saved himself (Matt. 26:53). But by not saving himself, he was saving others (Mark 10:45; Gal 3:13; 1 Pet. 2:23-25). Christ. See notes on 2:11; 22:67. chosen one. See notes on 9:34-35.

Luke 23:36

Jesus would have been desperate for some relief (John 19:28). Rather than offer him wine or water, the soldiers mockingly offered him vinegar.

Luke 23:37

save. See note on v. 35.

Luke 23:39

Matthew recorded that initially both criminals mocked Jesus (Matt. 27:44). Christ. See notes on 2:11; 22:67. Save. See note on v. 35.

Luke 23:40-41

At some point, the heart of one criminal was turned from mocking to sympathy (see note on v. 39). He understood the justice of his own sentence but the injustice committed against Jesus. Perhaps Jesus' prayer for his enemies caused his change of mind (see note on v. 34).

Luke 23:42

The repentant criminal (vv. 40-41) trusted that Jesus was able to save him. kingdom. See note on 4:43.

Luke 23:43

today. That very day Jesus would complete the work of salvation by offering his life for sinners (John 19:30). Like the parable of the Pharisee and the tax collector, those who crucified Jesus would miss the kingdom while the sinner who begged for mercy would see it (v. 42; 18:9-14). paradise. Term which here meant the dwelling place of the righteous in death (see 2 Cor. 12:3; Rev. 2:7). Jesus assured the man his faith has saved him (see 7:50; Eph. 2:8). He would be with Jesus (John 17:24). See WCF 4.2; 32.1; WLC 82, 85; WSC 37.

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