Thirdmill Study Bible

Notes on Luke 20:1-21:4

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Jesus Defends His Authority at the Temple – 20:1–21:4

Jesus' provocative action and prophetic teaching get a reaction from the temple authorities. But, Jesus sticks to the prophetic theme and asks them about John the Baptist.

Luke 20:1

one day. Jesus was constantly preaching and teaching during this last week of his life (v. 19:47). It was a means of shepherding the people in contrast to the false shepherds who rejected his message (11:46, 52). chief priests . . . scribes . . . elders. This group describes the Sanhedrin council of Israel. The Sanhedrin was the representative leadership of Israel. It was a group of 71 Jewish men, who served as ruling elders of the nation and as a buffer between ancient Israel and the Roman government. It included men from the scribes, the Sadducees, and the Pharisees, and it was presided over by the current high priest. came to him. This was a smaller delegation from the Sanhedrin rather than the full group.

Luke 20:2

The point of the question was to trap Jesus. The group (v. 1) wanted him to say something that would either discredit him in the eyes of the people or give them a charge to bring against him. authority. Jesus' authority should have been obvious from his teaching (4:32) and his identity as the Son of Man (5:24), the Son of David (18:38-39), and Israel's King (19:12, 15, 38). Luke's readers also saw his authority because he was the Son of the Most High (1:32, 35), the promised Christ (2:11, 26), and the Holy One of God (4:34). these things. Entering Jerusalem to messianic praise (19:35-40), cleansing the temple (19:45-46), and teaching (19:47-48).

Luke 20:3-4

Jesus responded to the leaders' question with a question of his own. baptism of John. See notes on 7:24-48. John came into the world with a promised, supernatural birth (1:11-13). Moreover, he was set apart by God from birth to prepare for the Christ (1:14-17). He preached repentance and commanded baptism for forgiveness of sins (3:1-6). It was obvious his baptism was from God. However, the religious leaders did not accept John's ministry (7:30).

Luke 20:5-6

Jesus turned the leaders' trap back on them. By affirming John's baptism was from heaven, they appear foolish or sinful for not believing him. If they deny John was from God, they will be rejected by the people and stoned for false witness against God's prophet (see Deut. 13:1-11).

Luke 20:7

Their claim of ignorance was driven by hypocrisy. Ironically, it shows their wisdom is merely human (v. 4) and cannot see what God is doing in the world (12:56).

Luke 20:8

If the group could not discern the origin of John's baptism, they had no basis to question Jesus' authority in ministry. They refuse to see what is before them (22:67–68).

Luke 20:9

parable. See note on 8:4. man planted a vineyard. Two historical details lie in the background to this parable. First, it was common for wealthy men to buy fields, establish vineyards in them, and hire servants to tend them until the harvest time. More importantly, the vineyard imagery represented Israel in the Old Testament (Ps. 80:8-13; Isa. 5:1-2; 27:2-3; Jer. 2:21; Hos. 10:1). vine growers. People hired to tend the vineyard so it will yield fruit. God called Israel to himself, established them in the Promised Land, gave them a Law, and set over them priests and elders to care for them.

Luke 20:10-12

Those entrusted with the vineyard acted wicked towards the owner. They refused to give him the profits of his vineyard and mistreated his servants. In the parable, the servants represent God's prophets (see Amos 3:7; Zech. 1:4-6). God sent prophets to draw out fruit from the vineyard (Isa. 5:1-2). But the people mistreated them and refused to believed (Jer. 7:25-26).

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