Paper and ink - 2 John 1:12

Thirdmill Study Bible

Notes on 2 John 1:12-13

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Paper and ink - 2 John 1:12

paper and ink, face to face. Our idiom, face to face, is different in the Graeco-Roman world as the text reads, "mouth to mouth" (see note on Num. 12:8). The word paper is referring to papyrus. This papyrus was made from reeds providing an affordable writing surface. A pen would be made from a reed with a pointed end. Writers dipped this into ink, which was made from charcoal, vegetable gum, and water. This ending is very similar to the ending of 3 John, demonstrating the priority of in-person communication in the ancient world .

Chosen sister - 2 John 1:13

chosen sister. John uses the same metaphor from v. 1. This is the only place where this kind of description is used in the NT, but the family language most likely refers to the church (see note on v. 1). Here, two sister churches are sharing intimate family greetings.

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