Thirdmill Study Bible

Notes on Jude 1:13-23

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Wandering stars - Jude 1:13

. . . foaming out their own shame Jude drew this image from Isa. 52:20. The false teachers, like the waves, made a lot of noise but left behind nothing but worthlessness. wandering stars Refers to planets, and possibly meteors and comets. They do not have a predictable course, so they are not trustworthy guides. Likewise false teachers will lead followers only towards the blackest darkness. In some Jewish apocalyptic writings, like 1 Enoch, these "wandering stars," since they were not fixed in place in the skies, were thought to be controlled by disobedient heavenly beings.

Prophecy of Judgment on False Teachers - Jude 1:14-16

At this point, Jude turned his focus to a prophecy of divine judgment from the Jewish literary tradition. Jude applied this prophecy to the ungodly false teachers to demonstrate their ultimate condemnation and destruction.

Enoch's Prophecy of Judgment. - Jude 1:14-15

Jude referred to a prophecy from a non-canonical Jewish tradition concerning the impending universal judgment of God on the ungodly.

Enoch, the seventh from Adam - Jude 1:14

Enoch An "Enoch" is mentioned in Gen. 5:18-24. He was a member of the seventh generation from Adam by inclusive count. Jude quoted from one of the most famous works in early Jewish literature, the Book of Enoch, also known as 1 Enoch. Jude did not imply either that the book is inspired or even the historical Enoch was its author. Rather, the words of the prophecy express Jude's point well—Enoch was a well-known and regarded work—so Jude took advantage of this source to further his condemnation of the false teacher. prophesied Jude apparently thought of this prophecy as an accurate prediction of the future divine judgment. The truthfulness of the prophecy is confirmed by many OT prophecies (e.g., Dan. 7:9-10; Zech. 14:5). The OT is clear that God will decisively judge the ungodly among whom are the false teachers who deceived Jude's readers. Jude was therefore correct to apply this prophecy to the false teachers. holy ones On the last day, the Lord will come with an army of angels to pour out his judgment upon the ungodly (Zech. 14:5; Matt. 25:31).

Ungodly - Jude 1:15

ungodly Jude's preferred description of his opponents. Their rebellion was primarily against God himself, and their teaching did not encourage godliness or submission to God's authority (cf. vv. 4, 18). WLC 88; BC 37.

Application of Prophecy to False Teachers - Jude 1:16

Jude applied this prophecy to the false teachers by charging them with ungodliness in three accusations.

Grumblers and faultfinders - Jude 1:16

grumblers and complainers By using these words, Jude compared the false teachers to the Israelites in the wilderness. The Greek words used here remind the reader of the stories of God's people "grumbling" against his authority (cf. Num. 14:27; 16:11; 17:10; Deut. 1:27; Ps. 106:25). Like the Israelites, the false teachers are rebelling against the authority of God over their lives and influencing others to do the same. flatter others The false teachers likely molded their teaching to receive favor from the rich or influential in the church (cf. Jam. 2:1-9). WLC 145.

Encouragement to Believers - Jude 1:17-23

Jude appealed to apostolic teaching that confirmed God's destruction of the wicked. Jude also exhorted his readers to pursue a godly life by relying on God's mercy in Christ Jesus.

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