Thirdmill Study Bible

Notes on Jude 1:12-16

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Application of Examples to False Teachers - Jude 1:12-13

Jude described the false teachers themselves. They may have appeared helpful, but like the previous examples, they only brought harm.

Blemishes - Jude 1:12

hidden reefs In later Greek, the word used here can refer to a "stain" or "blemish." Here, though, Jude referred to the unseen danger of obstacles hidden under seemingly safe water. Similarly, the false teachers were all the more dangerous for the church because they may have appeared helpful. love feasts These feasts are the most common early church meetings which consisted of both a common meal and an observance of the Lord's Supper (see 1 Cor. 11:20-34). feast . . . feed themselves The love feasts were times for the church to care for one another and to share prophecy and teaching (Acts 20:7, 11). So, Jude condemned the false teachers for serving themselves with their teaching rather than building up the community in truth. clouds without rain . . . trees without fruit These images, like hidden reefs, illustrate the deception of the false teachers, who may seem helpful but disappoint. twicedead Not only are the false teachers dead in the sense that they bear no fruit; they are also destined for ultimate destruction in divine judgment (cf. Matt. 7:16-20).

Wandering stars - Jude 1:13

. . . foaming out their own shame Jude drew this image from Isa. 52:20. The false teachers, like the waves, made a lot of noise but left behind nothing but worthlessness. wandering stars Refers to planets, and possibly meteors and comets. They do not have a predictable course, so they are not trustworthy guides. Likewise false teachers will lead followers only towards the blackest darkness. In some Jewish apocalyptic writings, like 1 Enoch, these "wandering stars," since they were not fixed in place in the skies, were thought to be controlled by disobedient heavenly beings.

Prophecy of Judgment on False Teachers - Jude 1:14-16

At this point, Jude turned his focus to a prophecy of divine judgment from the Jewish literary tradition. Jude applied this prophecy to the ungodly false teachers to demonstrate their ultimate condemnation and destruction.

Enoch's Prophecy of Judgment. - Jude 1:14-15

Jude referred to a prophecy from a non-canonical Jewish tradition concerning the impending universal judgment of God on the ungodly.

Enoch, the seventh from Adam - Jude 1:14

Enoch An "Enoch" is mentioned in Gen. 5:18-24. He was a member of the seventh generation from Adam by inclusive count. Jude quoted from one of the most famous works in early Jewish literature, the Book of Enoch, also known as 1 Enoch. Jude did not imply either that the book is inspired or even the historical Enoch was its author. Rather, the words of the prophecy express Jude's point well—Enoch was a well-known and regarded work—so Jude took advantage of this source to further his condemnation of the false teacher. prophesied Jude apparently thought of this prophecy as an accurate prediction of the future divine judgment. The truthfulness of the prophecy is confirmed by many OT prophecies (e.g., Dan. 7:9-10; Zech. 14:5). The OT is clear that God will decisively judge the ungodly among whom are the false teachers who deceived Jude's readers. Jude was therefore correct to apply this prophecy to the false teachers. holy ones On the last day, the Lord will come with an army of angels to pour out his judgment upon the ungodly (Zech. 14:5; Matt. 25:31).

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