RPM, Volume 13, Number 36, September 4 September 10, 2011

Jeremiah 20:7-13

An Exegesis

By Russell Meek

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the
Master of Arts in Biblical Languages Degree
at Midwestern Baptist Theological Seminary.


I began my journey into the world of laments for the same reason that a lot of people do: I was frustrated and searching for consolation. I began to desperately search the Scriptures for someone as frustrated as I was. What I found did not turn out to be what I had expected to find. On the one hand, there were hurting people in the Bible; on the other hand, those people coped with their pain very differently than I had. As this particular passage in Jeremiah is examined a theme common to laments will become apparent: the biblical author moves from despair into hope and trust. Thus, my journey into Jeremiah's life has been one of both comfort and conviction. I not only learned that God does indeed care for his followers and that biblical writers did experience genuine heartache, but I also learned that they did not tarry long in their despair. Now, it is true that this text does not apply directly to my situation. It is about a man who remained faithful to God in the midst of pain caused by his faithfulness to the call of God on his life. Nevertheless, Jeremiah's words were present with me in my suffering and he taught me how to respond to God in the midst of my own anger and pain. It is for that reason that I invite the reader to examine this passage with me.

This paper will examine Jeremiah 20:7-13 with the intent of showing the reader two things. First, that this passage is a lament, and second, that as such it offers present day believers an excellent example of the proper response to God when one faces times of extreme loneliness, anger, and frustration on account of the call of God. In order to prove this thesis, the author will first give a translation and thought flow diagram, which will be followed by a justification of the limits of the passage. Second, the lament form will be discussed in order to show that this passage fits that model. Third, the historical context will be drawn, which is crucial to a proper understanding of Jeremiah's grief. Fourth, the broad and immediate literary contexts will be discussed, which will help the reader understand why this passage is situated in this particular section of Jeremiah. Fifth, a verse-by-verse analysis of the text will be given, which will highlight important grammatical and theological concepts. Sixth, exegetical conclusions will be discussed and applied to the modern situation. Finally, a sermon outline will be given to assist the reader in presenting the message of the passage in a church setting.


v7 You deceived 1 me, Yahweh, and I let myself be taken for a fool.
You were too strong for me, so you prevailed.
I have become a laughingstock all day; the whole of it derides me.

v8 For every time I speak, I cry out. "Violence!" and "Destruction!" I proclaim. .
Therefore the message of Yahweh is a shame and a mockery to me all day. .

v9 So I say, "I will not mention it, nor speak any longer in his name." .
But, it is in my mind 2 ; it is as a consuming fire locked up in my bones. .
I am weary of holding it in; and I unable to.

v10 For I hear the whisperings of many, "Terror 3 all around!" "Announce it, let .
us announce it!" .
All of my friends are watching for my fall. .
"Perhaps he will be taken for a fool, then we can prevail over him and take our .
revenge on him.

v11 But, Yahweh is with me as a violent warrior! Therefore, my persecutors .
will fall; they will not prevail! 4 .
They will be greatly shamed, for they will fail. They are an eternal shame, .
which will never be forgotten.

v12 5 But Yahweh of Hosts tests the righteous 6 and sees the heart and mind. .
Let me see your retribution on them, for to you I present 7 my case. .

v13 Sing to Yahweh! Praise Yahweh! .
Because he tears the soul of the need from the hand of evildoers.

There is an overwhelming amount of internal evidence that supports limiting the scope of the periscope to verses 7-13. Snyman has shown that the poem is a chiasm, which supports the idea that verses 7-13 is a self contained unit. 8

Prophet and Yahweh…..vv7-9….. A
Prophet and Opponents…..v10…..B
Yahweh and Opponents…..v11…..B1
Yahweh and Prophet…..v12…..A1
Conclusion…..v13..... C
Verses 14-18 are not unrelated to this text, but they are definitely a change in subject and do not fit within the chiasm that the author has used to compose verses 7-13. This chiasm also shows that verse 13 is a smooth ending to the poem, which in turn excludes verses 14-18. There have been a few dissenting voices, but the majority of scholarship has separated verses 7-13 from verse 14-18. 9

Next, multiple repetitions of words and consonants in the Hebrew text highlight the unity of the passage. 10 Patah appears twice in verse 7 and once in verse 10. Yachal appears in verses 7, 9, 10, and 11. YHWH is in verses 7, 8, 11, 12, 13. Hayah is in verses 7, 8 (twice), and 9. Niqmah is in verses 10 and 12. Lev appears in verses 9 and 12. 11 The repetition of words ties the lines in the poem to each other thematically and draws out certain important elements, such as the role of YHWH and importance of yachal. Furthermore, beyond the repetition of words, even the consonants l, h, k, and s are repeated throughout the pericope. The repetition of consonants ties the verses together phonetically and causes the readero think of the places in the context when the words and sounds were used.

The final reason this passage should be considered a self-contained unit is because it fits the form of lament closely, and the inclusion of the preceding or following verses would diminish its identity as such. The assertion that this poem is a lament is not only important for justifying the limits of the passage, but it is also germane to the thesis of this paper. For, if verses 7-13 are indeed a lament, then they can be used by believers as a model for proper response to Yahweh. 12

In order to put the work of O'Connor in context 13 , this paper will first look at the elements within a poem that indicate it is a lament. 14 Gunkel lists a number of elements that are contained in laments and gives a general outline of the arrangement of laments. However, he (among others 15 ) maintains that the order of elements will not always be the same, nor will all of the elements be present in any given lament. 16 Thus, there is no magic number or arrangement of elements that necessitates a poem being labeled a lament; rather, it is the tone of the poem along with the presence of at least some of the following elements arranged in a general, observable pattern. 17

Gunkel asserts that laments are poems composed by an individual under extreme duress who is facing matters of great importance, i.e. life and death. 18 There are multiple sources of distress for the author, but the most common source of his duress is contempt for an enemy by whom the writer usually feels helplessly surrounded. 19 This factor accounts for the general tone of anger and/or depression that is characteristic of laments. The following characteristics will be discussed in the order in which they generally appear in lament poems; however, it is important to remember that the order is flexible and not solely determinative of the form. First, there is an invocation of deity (most often designated by the name YHWH) 20 which is often placed within the "cry for help" that often introduces laments. 21 This is meant to gain the attention of Yahweh, who will hear the case of the plaintiff. After he has gained the attention of Yahweh, the author offers a brief picture of himself as a person in the posture of prayer. 22

Next, there is the complaint, which usually comprises the bulk of the poem. This section uses raw, emotive language that is designed to relay the intense pain being suffered by the plaintiff in an effort to move Yahweh to act on his behalf. When the source of the distress is an enemy the author often includes quotes from the enemy that implicate him. 23 Next is the petition, in which Yahweh is addressed in either the imperative or jussive and is asked to perform some action on behalf of the plaintiff. 24 The petition generally includes various reasons, in addition to those already stated, as to why Yahweh should act in favor of the author. 25 The petition is then followed by an expression of the author's confidence in Yahweh and/or his certainty that his prayer has been heard. 26 A response is not usually recorded from Yahweh; so it is assumed that the preceding prayer is what has brought the author to the point of confidence in his God. 27 The poem is then ended by one or all of the following elements: a vow to do something in return for the action taken by Yahweh, a thanksgiving hymn, and/or a vow of holiness. 28 These three elements also serve to further the cause of the author by ensuring Yahweh that he will be honored if the request is granted. 29

Let us now turn to the text of Jeremiah in order to show that his poem is a lament. First, it is clear from the passage itself that the author is experiencing extreme duress, which he attributes to Yahweh and his message, but which comes through the conduit of ill treatment by his enemies on account of that message. Thus, while the explicit cause of the distress is not his enemies, they nevertheless an important cause of the pain experienced by the author.

Second, the reader encounters an invocation of the deity in verse 7a. 30 Admittedly, this is not the most obvious example of an invocation since it is couched in an accusation of Yahweh. However, note that YHWH is in the vocative and pittitany, chazaqttany, and wattukal are all second person singular verbs. Thus, this sentence is indeed an invocation of the deity.

Third, it is clear from the context that verses 7b-10 are the complaint itself. 31 This text conforms to the pattern given by Gunkel in that the complaint is the largest single section within the poem. Furthermore, it also agrees with his pattern in that the source of the duress is enemies 32 of the author whose direct speech he quotes in order to implicate them before Yahweh.

Fourth, the petition of the author is found in verse 12. 33 This is out of the order given by Gunkel, but it must be remembered that the order of the elements is flexible. More importantly, ereh is jussive, which indicates a petition by the author. Further, the author notes Yahweh's righteousness as the reason why he should answer grant his request.

Fifth, the author expresses confidence inYHWH in verse 11. 34 As was noted earlier, this is out of the normal order. The expression of confidence normally follows the petition, but the order is reversed in this text. Here, Jeremiah is confident that Yahweh will indeed answer the prophet's complaint and bring his enemies to shame.

Finally, the poem ends with a command to praise in verse 13. 35 The imperative form of halelu and shiru has posed problems for some authors 36 , but in light of the other evidence it does not conclusively indicate that this is not a lament, and in fact, there are other laments where this phenomenon occurs. 37 More importantly, this final verse expresses thanksgiving to Yahweh for answering the petition of the author and finishes the poem in a manner consistent with other laments.

The only elements missing from the text are a protestation of innocence, a vow to praise, a vow to piety, and a portrayal of the author praying to Yahweh. 38 Again, there is no set number of elements that a given poem must contain in order for it to be labeled a lament. Rather, it is a combination of the previously discussed elements along with the general tone of the passage. This passage contains an overwhelming number of the elements of lament, and its author is clearly under distress. It can safely be concluded this passage is a lament.


The reform of Josiah began in 628, one year before Yahweh called Jeremiah. 39 His ministry continued until the final destruction of Jerusalem in 586. 40 He saw the Josianic reform produce fantastic outward changes, but was in large part disillusioned by and preached against the lack of genuine relationship between Yahweh and the people. During his forty year ministry he suffered manifold persecutions. The people of Israel refused to listen to him even after the destruction of Jerusalem!

Jeremiah was from the Levitical city Anathoth, which was approximately a one hour walk to Jerusalem; thus, it can be assumed that he would have been well informed about the goings on in Jerusalem. 41 This is also important because it implies that Jeremiah would have been familiar with priestly roles. As is evident in our text, a major source of his loneliness and frustration was his estrangement from this community. He was commanded not to participate in funerals and weddings and was even forbidden from being married himself. 42

Since Jeremiah began his ministry one year after the Josianic reform, one would think Jeremiah would have little to say to the community of faith. This unfortunately was not the case. Instead, we find a prophet who is angry with the lack of heart commitment to Yahweh in the presence of outward reform. 43

It is difficult if not impossible to locate this text chronologically. Holladay has proposed 597, but the evidence for such date setting is scant. 44 Thus, let it suffice to say that Jeremiah had a 40 year ministry of doom and gloom and was consistently rejected by the people whom he was trying to rescue. For the purpose of this paper it is only pertinent to know that this man toiled long and remained faithful in the face of extreme persecution for many, many years.


This text is situated in chapters 1-25, commonly held to be the first book of Jeremiah. This section contains most of the autobiographical content of the book, so it is fitting that all of Jeremiah's confessions are found herein. The overall tone of this section is very dark and depressed as the nation of Judah goes from bad to worse.

Within this large section, the text is found in the smaller unit formed by chapters 18-20. 45 Chapter 18 begins with the first episode involving the potter, which condemns Judah and results in a plot against Jeremiah's life. Chapter 19 likewise contains a symbolic act involving the potter. This time Jeremiah purchases and smashes a clay jar, which indicates that Yahweh is going to destroy Judah. This symbolic act marks the high point of Jeremiah's preaching against Judah and results in his arrest and torture by Passhur in the first part of chapter 20. 46 Verses 7-13 are a response to this incident and are connected to it by the catchphrase magur missabib. When read in context, it is easy to see how the prophet would be driven to such depths. Interestingly, the lament is not followed by a response from Yahweh. His silence adds to the solemnity that the reader experiences as he sees things in Judah going from bad to worse. The chapter appropriately ends with Jeremiah at his lowest point in the text and cursing even the day he was born. Chapters 21-24 contain treatises against poor leadership, and the section ends in chapter 25 with a declaration of captivity and prophecy that God's wrath is coming upon Judah.


Verse 7: This verse is arguably one of the most controversial sentences in the entire Bible. Some 47 have even argued that the verbs patah and chazaq carry the force of sexual violence, which would make the near blasphemous accusation even more intense. To support that interpretation, Holladay cites four texts (Exodus 22:45, Hosea 2:16, and Judges 14:15, 16:5) in which patah has a sexual connotation. Furthermore, he cites 2 Samuel 13:14 and Deuteronomy 22:25 as examples where chazaq means to rape. 48 He then uses the Exodus and Deuteronomy passages to argue that since these two words were used in laws that prohibited sexual violence Jeremiah is actually accusing Yahweh of breaking Torah. 49

While the above explanation is indeed compelling, the context does not demand that interpretation. O'Connor articulates a sound rebuttal of Holladay's argument. She has pointed out that the three texts Holladay cites are the only three texts in which patah carries a sexual connotation, and there it is the context, not the verb itself that demands the sexual interpretation. She has also argued that chazaq only means "to rape" in the hiphil form, but the verb is in the qal form in this context. Furthermore, Holladay himself goes on to point out that patah was used in reference to the prophets whom Yahweh deceived in 1 Kings, which is a better parallel to this text. 50 Thus, the preferred understanding of the text is one of deception, not seduction and sexual violence.

The importance of Jeremiah's disillusionment cannot be overstated. The beginning of this passage indicates that he felt as if Yahweh had not dealt with him as he expected. 51 This is often the cause of the pain felt when one remains faithful to the call of God. It is one thing to experience betrayal by one's peers; it is an entirely different thing to experience (whether actual or perceived) betrayal by one's God. The latter will quickly and forcefully push a person to despair, as is evident in the life of Jeremiah.

Verse 8: Kol hayyom does not simply mean "all day;" rather it indicates that the prophet is enduring prolonged and constant pain. 52 Of the 43 times this phrase occurs in the MT, 26 of the occurrences are in laments. 53 It is the word of Yahweh that has caused the prophet this continuous pain. While his enemies are at fault, the ultimate cause of the distress is the prophet's faithfulness to his call.

Verse 9: Here Jeremiah discovers that he has no real choice about the matter. If he refuses to speak in order to avoid the pain, then his internal agony is unbearable. Perhaps here we find commentary on verse 7. The reason he felt deceived was that he could not refuse to carry out his call; he is utterly powerless in the presence of Yahweh. 54

Verse 10: It has been suggested that magur missabib is a cruel nickname that has been attached to Jeremiah because of he constantly preached doom and gloom. 55 This serves as an example of the derision the prophet faced day in and day out.

Many translations read nagad as "denounce." However, Koehler and Baumgartner list no instances in which nagad carries that meaning. Furthermore, Holladay, O'Connor, and Hubmann all translate the word as "announce." Thus, we have rendered the text "announce it, let us announce it;" "it" being the word "terror all around." 56 Holladay argues that this is an instance of his "friends" mocking him and hoping to cause him greater harm by announcing his message of doom. 57 Notice that it is Jeremiah's "friends" who are speaking out against him. Holladay sees this is as a reference to his village support system, the one that he no longer has because of his faithfulness to the word of Yahweh. 58

Again, the loneliness and isolation that this passage conveys cannot be overstated. This is a man who has been rejected by all those close to him, even by God as Jeremiah sees it. Ironically, that which his friends are hoping for has already been accomplished by Yahweh. 59 They hope for his deception, but he has already been deceived; they hope to prevail against him, but Yahweh has already done so. But, notice that even here there is an implicit protection by Yahweh; he, not the "friends," has done these things to Jeremiah.

Verse 11: Here is where the beauty of Jeremiah's faith becomes apparent to the reader. This "mood swing" can be justified by the literary form of the passage, so it is unnecessary to argue about Jeremiah's psychological state at this point. What is important is that his faith in Yahweh shines through like the first light of dawn piercing the dark night. Jeremiah is confident that his enemies will not prevail, despite all of his doubts earlier in the text.

Verse 12: Jeremiah continues his confident assertion that Yahweh is on his side. He asks to see Yahweh's retribution on those who sought to exact their own retribution on Jeremiah. It is because Yahweh is just that Jeremiah has placed his case in his hand and confidently waits for Yahweh's verdict against his enemies.

Verse 13: The poem ends with a command to praise Yahweh that highlights Jeremiah's confidence that Yahweh has heard him and will (already has!) deliver him from his enemies. The "poor" does not indicate a person who does not have any money. Rather, it carries much the same idea that is found in the Sermon on the Mount. It is the poor in spirit, i.e. those who rely on Yahweh, whom Yahweh delivers. 60


A number of conclusions can be drawn from the preceding analysis of this text. First, Jeremiah does not stay in a state of despair; his prayer to Yahweh moved him to a state of confidence and praise. Second, both honest reflection and praise are appropriate responses to Yahweh when one experiences negative consequences due to faithfulness to one's call. Third, Yahweh is not constrained to answer the believer, as he did not answer Jeremiah in this passage. Fourth, serving God is not always easy and rewarding; the cost is often immense in this life. Fifth, even though Yahweh may seem distant, he does not abandon the believer.


Applying this text to life is at once nearly impossible and unavoidable. Having been in the abyss of depression for two years, I found the passage to be freeing and exhilarating. Granted, it doesn't apply directly to the situation I faced, for Jeremiah was a man who suffered persecution and isolation due to faithfulness to his call. I was suffering pain and disillusionment that simply had to do with the fallenness of humanity. Thus, this text is most directly applicable to those people who suffer persecution because of their call. Nevertheless, Jeremiah has shown us that it is acceptable to be honest with God about our frustrations. He has also shown us that it is important to move from our despair to confident trust in the person of Yahweh. He is just, and he does examine the heart and mind, and he does act on behalf of those who are poor in spirit. Thus, when one finds oneself in despair and disillusionment, then it would be wise to respond in the same manner that Jeremiah responded: by gut level honesty that moves one to genuine trust in Yahweh.


Text: Jeremiah 20:7-13 Central Idea: Faithfulness to the call of Yahweh often results in persecution and isolation. However, Yahweh is faithful, trustworthy, and praiseworthy regardless of our circumstances.

Central Truth of the Sermon: This text gives the reader an example of the proper way to respond to God when one is persecuted or experiences anger and disillusionment.

Purpose: To cause the reader to know that s/he is not alone in his/her feelings of isolation and to show them how to respond to God when they experience persecution and the emotional trauma that accompanies it.

Title: You Are Not Alone

  • I. Introduction: Relay the story of how I came to read laments
  • II. Body
    • a. Jeremiah's Despair (vv7-10)
      • i. Expression of Despair (v7)
      • ii. Reason for Despair (v8)
      • iii. Solution for Despair (v9)
      • iv. Perpetrators of Despair (v10)
    • b. Jeremiah's Hope (vv11-13)
      • i. Hope in Yahweh's Power (v11)
      • ii. Hope in Yahweh's Person (v12)
      • iii. Hope Led to Yahweh's Praise (v13)
  • III. Conclusion: Discuss how this is an example that is to be emulated by those in similar circumstances.


1. Patah can carry the meaning "seduce," the reason I have chosen this translation will be discussed below.

2.Greek lacks "in my mind" and Rudolph considers the form to be a probable conjecture, but gives no textual evidence to support his claim of conjecture. The MT should be stand.

3. LXX has "gathering around," thus taking magor as the participial form of gor. Since the LXX is the only variant and the noun "terror" is possible and fits the context, rendering the word as such is acceptable.

4. LXX has "They persecuted, but they did not perceive." The textual support is minimal, thus the MT should stand.

5. Rudolph suggests this line was added from 11:20. However, the repetition of a phrase within a work does not detract from its use in either context.

6. A few medieval manuscripts and 11:20 have tzadak instead of tzaddik, which would make the text read "just judge." The emendation has minimal and late support, therefore the MT is preferred.

7. Rudolph suggests that this should be read as galoti but gives no textual support, thus the MT should stand.

8. William Holladay, Jeremiah 1: A Commentary on the Book of the Prophet Jeremiah, Chapters 1-25, (Philadelphia Fortress Press, 1986), 561

9. See Huey, 1993 for the dissenting voice. Holladay, Clines and Gunn, O'Connor, Westermann, Snyman, Magonet, and Thompson all agree.

10. It should also be noted that Huey (1993, p. 854) argues that yom connects verses 14-18 with verses 7-13. However, this argument is rejected as proof that the two poems should be considered a single unit because the preponderance of evidence is in support of considering vv7-13 a single unit. However, this is not intended to discount Huey's argument altogether. Yom is indeed a catchword that connects the two poems. But, the occurrence of catchwords does not necessitate reading the poems as a single unit.

11. Huey, 853.

12.The argument for this passage as a lament has been largely taken from O'Connor, and has been supplemented by Gunkel's definition of the lament form.

13. Kathleen O'Connor, The Confessions of Jeremiah: Their Interpretation and Role in Chapters 1-25, SBL Dissertation Series, 94 ed. by J.J.M. Roberts (Atlanta: Scholar's Press, 1988).

14. For the purpose of this paper, only individual laments will be discussed. Therefore, all of the references to laments, their form, and the elements that compose them refer only to individual laments.

15. See Lucas, 2003 and Gerstenberger, 1998.

16. Herman Gunkel, Introduction to Psalms: The Genres of the Religious Lyric of Israel, trans. James D. Nogalski, (Macon: Mercer University Press, 1998), 130.

17. While Gunkel asserts that it is not important to have all of the elements of lament within a given poem, he also argues that if the invocation of Yahweh is absent, then the form is likely not a lament. 23, 152.

18. Gunkel, 131 and 134.

19. Ibid., 139 and 148.

20. Ibid., 153.

21. Ibid., 152.

22. Ibid., 177.

23. Ibid., 155.

24. Ibid., 178.

25. Ibid.

26. Ibid., 180

27. Ibid., 181.

28. Ibid., 184-185.

29. Lucas (2003) and Gerstenberger (1998) are in agreement with all of the elements listed, but Lucas adds protestation of innocence.

30. O'Connor, 66.

31. Ibid.

32. As was noted previously, the enemy is the secondary source of the distress. The word of Yahweh is the direct source of pain, but it is the derision of the author's enemies that comes under scrutiny and is the agent by which he experiences pain.

33. O'Connor, 66.


35. Ibid.

36. Jonathan Magonet, "Jeremiah's Last Confession: Structure, Image, and Ambiguity," in Hebrew Annual Review Vol 11, ed. by Rueben Ahroni (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1987), 303. See also Thompson, 461.

37. O'Connor, 67.

38. Ibid..

39. John Walton and Andrew Hill, A Survey of the Old Testament, 2nd ed. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2000), 426.

40. Ibid.

41.Bill T. Arnold and Bryan Beyer, Encountering the Old Testament, Encountering the Bible Series, (Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1999), 384.

42. William Holladay, Jeremiah: Spokesman Out of Time, (Philadelphia: United Church Press, 1974), 88.

43. John Bright, Jeremiah, Vol. 21 Anchor Bible, (Garden City: Doubleday and Co., 1965), xlv.

44. Holladay, 591.

45. Diamond, 170.

46. J. Andrew Dearman, Jeremiah/Lamentations, NIV Application Commentary, (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2002), 194.

47. Bright,132. Huey (1993) argues that it is a technical term for rape, which is not plausible since it does not mean "to rape" in every context in which it is found.

48. Holladay, Jeremiah 1-25, 552.

49. Ibid., 553.

50. Holladay, Spokesman, 101.

51. J. Gerald Janzen, "Jeremiah 20:7-18," Interpretation 37 (April, 1983), 178.

52. Holladay, Jeremiah 1-25, 553.

53. Ibid., 553.

54. Ibid., 555. J.A. Thompson, The Book of Jeremiah, New International Commentary on the Old Testament, (Grand Rapids: W.B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1980), 460

55. F.B. Huey, Jeremiah/Lamentations, Vol. 16 New American Commentary, (Nashville: Broadman Press, 1993), 153.

56. Diamond, 111. Holladay, Jeremiah 1-25, 556. O'Connor, 73.

57. Holladay, Jeremiah 1-25, 556.

58. Holladay, Spokesman, 102.

59. Holladay, Jeremiah 1-25, 557.

60. Thompson, 462.


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Bright, John. Jeremiah. Vol. 21 Anchor Bible Commentary. Garden City: Doubleday and Co., 1965.

Bruggemann, Walter. "The Secret of Survival: Jeremiah 20:7-13, Mathew 6:1-8." Journal for Preachers 26, no. 2 (Lent 2003): 42-47.

Cogan, Mordechai. "Into Exile: From the Assyrian Conquest of Israel to the Fall of Babylon." In Oxford History of the Biblical World, ed. Michael Coogan, 242-275. New York: Oxford University Press Inc., 1998.

Craigie, Peter, Page Kelley, and Joel Drinkard. Jeremiah 1-25. Vol. 26 Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas: Word Books, 1991.

Dearman, Andrew J. Jeremiah/Lamentations. NIV Application Commentary. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2002.

Diamond, A.R. Confessions of Jeremiah in Context: Scenes of a Prophetic Drama. Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press, 1987.

Fretheim, Terrence. "Caught in the Middle: Jeremiah's Vocational Crisis." Word and World 22, no. 4 (Fall 2002): 351-360.

Gerstenberger, Erhard S. Psalms, Part I: With an Introduction to Cultic Poetry. The Forms of Old Testament Literature, eds. Rolf Knierem and Gene M. Tucker, Vol. XIV. Grand Rapids: Eerdman's Publishing Co., 1998.

Gunkel, Hermann. Introduction to Psalms: The Genres of the Religious Lyric of Israel. Completed by Joachin Begrich. Translated by James D. Nogalski. Macon: Mercer University Press, 1998.

Hill, Andrew, and John Walton. A Survey of the Old Testament. 2d ed. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2000.

Holladay, William L. Jeremiah One: A Commentary on the Book of the Prophet Jeremiah Chapters 1-25. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1986.

_____. Jeremiah: Spokesman Out of Time. Philadelphia: United Church Press, 1974.

Honeyman, A.M. "Magôr Missabîb and Jeremiah's Pun." Vetus Testamentum 4, no. 4 (1954): 424-426.

Huey, F. B. Jeremiah, Lamentations. Vol. 16 New American Commentary. Nashville: Broadman Press, 1993.

Janzen, J. Gerald. "Jeremiah 20.7-18." Interpretation 37, Ap. (1983): 178-183.

Levenson, Jon D. "Some Unnoticed Connotations in Jeremiah 20.9." Catholic Biblical Quarterly 46, Ap. (1984): 223-225.

Lewin, Ellen Davis. "Arguing for Authority: A Rhetorical Study of Jeremiah 1:4-19 and 20.7-18." Journal for the Study of the Old Testament no. 32, Je. (1985): 105-119.

Lucas, Ernest C. Exploring the Old Testament: A Guide to the Psalms and Wisdom Literature. Vol. 3 Exploring the Old Testament. Downers Grove: Intervarsity Press, 2003.

Magonet, Jonathan. "Jeremiah's Last Confession: Structure, Image, and Ambiguity." In Hebrew Annual Review, ed. Rueben Ahroni, vol. 11, 303-317. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1987.

Moore, Michael S. "Jeremiah's Identity Crisis." Restoration Quarterly 34, no. 3 (1992): 135-149.

O'Connor, Kathleen. The Confessions of Jeremiah: Their Interpretation and Role in Chapters 1-25. SBL Dissertation Series, ed. J. J. M. Roberts. Atlanta: Scholar's Press, 1988.

Smith, Mark S. The Laments of Jeremiah and Their Contexts: A Literary and Redactional Study of Jeremiah 11-20. SBL Monograph Series, ed. Adele Yarbro Collins. Atlanta: Scholar's Press, 1990.

Snyman, S.D. "A Note on pth and ykl in Jeremiah xx 7-13." Vetus Testamentum 48, no. 4 (1998): 559-563.

Thompson, J.A. The Book of Jeremiah. New International Commentary on the Old Testament, eds. R.K. Harrison and Robert L. Hubbard. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1980.

Thompson, Paul B. "Power and Powerlessness in Jeremiah 20: Realities in Ministry." Caribbean Journal of Religious Studies 14, no. 2 (1993), 135-149.

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