RPM, Volume 17, Number 25, June 14 to June 20, 2015


Part I: A Brief History

By Joseph R. Nally

Theological Editor, Third Millennium Ministries

Islam is growing. There are over one hundred mosques or Islamic centers in Chicago serving over 350,000 Muslims. New York has at least 700,000 Muslims. One new mosque per week opens in the United States. 1

What is Islam? Who was Muhammad? Is Islam a religion of peace? What of Islam's growth? How is the Christian church to respond?

This article looks briefly at each of these topics.

What is Islam?

Islam is a monotheistic religious philosophy that developed in the Middle East in the 7th century. 2 "Islam" means "submission to God." 3 A Muslim is one who strives to submit to God. The word does not mean "peace." 4 5

Islam is not merely a religion but a code of life. It seeks to engage one's: (1) spiritual, (2) intellectual, (3) personal, (4) family, (5) social, (6) economical, (7) political, and (8) international life. In addition, it is a form of government.

The primary scripture of Islam is the "Qur'an" (literally "Recitation"). 6 It consists mostly of Arabic words, but some terms are borrowed from the Hebrew and Syriac. It consists of approximately 165,000 words in English (the New Testament consists of approximately 184,590). It is divided into: Harf, Kalimah, Ayah, Surah, Ruku', Rub', Nisf, SuIs, Juz', Manzal. 7 It has 114 "surahs" (similar to chapters). 8 There are a total of about 6,327 "ayats" (similar to verses) in the Quran. 9 10

Islam worships "Allah" — their god, who differs from the God of the Bible. He is considered to be the creator of the universe by Muslims (followers of Islam). 11 Foundational to Islam is the belief that Allah is the one and true God with no partner or equal.

Although there are others, the two main divisions or perhaps one might say denominations, within the tradition of Islam are (1) the "Sunni" and (2) "Shi'a." Each one claims a different means of maintaining religious authority.

One of the unifying characteristics of Islam is the Five Pillars, the fundamental practices of Islam. These five pillars are: (1) a ritual profession of faith, (2) ritual prayer, (3) the zakat (charity), (4) fasting, and (5) the hajj (a pilgrimage to Mecca).

Islam has twenty-five prophets in it including, Muhammad, Christ, Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, etc. They consider Muhammad their most important prophet. Today when his name is spoken by Muslims it is always followed by the Arabic benediction sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam ("Peace be upon him"). In speaking or writing, Muslims normally attach the title "Prophet" to his name.

Islam's ultimate goal is to rule the world. It uses a 'carrot and stick' motivation. 12 The 'carrot' set before Muslims is an expectation of generous rewards in this life and the ones they think is are coming in the next life, (such as 72 vestal virgins, 78:33) for those who fight for Islam. On the other hand, those who fall away are warned of the severe 'stick' of temporal and eternal punishments.

Leaving or converting to something other than Islam is not an option. Once a Muslim always a Muslim 13 is the code of Islam, the only official alternative is death.

From the perspective and theology of Christianity, Islam is a cult, a false religion.

Who was Muhammad? 14

There is little historical information concerning Muhammad's (Mahomet, Mahomed, or Mahommed) childhood. He was born in Mecca around A.D. 570 into the Hashim family. 15 Muhammad's father was named Abdullah and his mother Amina.

His birth is alleged to have been somewhat mystical and accompanied by alleged miraculous events. However there is nothing in the Qur'an or anywhere else in recorded history where miracles are in any way associated with Muhammad. Anything of that sort is purely legend. Geisler states:

According to legend, a host of angels joyously attended his birth. As soon as the infant was born, he fell to the ground, took a handful of dust and gazed toward heaven, proclaiming, "God is Great." He was born clean, circumcised, with his navel cord already cut. Many other global signs are said to have followed this event, such as the appearance of a light that illuminated the palaces of Bostra in Syria, and the flooding of a lake that "caused the palace of Khosroes (the King of Persia) to crack, and the fire of Zoroastrians to die out." 16

At twenty-five he married a wealthy widow by the name of Khadija. He had twelve wives in all.

Muhammad was devoted to periods of retreat of worship, asceticism, and prayer. In 610 A.D., at age 42, Muhammad believed he received a call from God through the angel Gabriel.

With his wife's influence, Muhammad proclaimed himself a prophet in same lineage as that of Abraham and Jesus. He narrated the Qur'an to those who listened to him, telling them that it was the word of Allah. His first direction was "No compulsion in religion." This later changed (cf. jihad).

If one examines the Qur'an carefully, they will observe that it does not contain a single original moral value. In essence, the Qur'an only contributed one new idea to world religion — that Muhammad is Allah's prophet!

At first Muhammad's new revelation(s) were resisted by the Meccans, who believed in the power of idols, gods, and goddesses and thus would not assent to Muhammad's doctrine of God's oneness. However, in time converts came around. At first seven men joined him. He then began to deliver his messages publically. After five years he had only sixteen converts to Islam. Years later he had about 40 converts; both men and women.

Mecca was polytheistic; they worshipped 360 gods, of whom Allah was considered the ruling deity. Muhammad tried the proverbial 'every trick in the book' to get Meccans to convert; including incorporating some of their pagan rituals. He engaged in Hajj 17, circling the Kaaba 18, and kissing the black stone 19; all which predate Islam. He recited some Quranic verses (Satanic Verses 20) in which Allah supposedly praised the three pagan Arabian goddesses (Allat 21, Al-Uzza 22, and Manat 23).

After things in Mecca did not work out and after 13 years of preaching, he decided to move to Medina, Arabia. This journey was a turning point for Islam. Gibb says, "The migration of the Prophet… has been with justice taken by the Muslims as the starting-point of their chronology, for it forms the first stage in a movement which in a short time became of significance in the history of the world." 24 Islam began to grow.

However, now Muhammad began to announce that Allah was instructing all Muslims to use "swords." Their attack would now be two fold: (1) sword and (2) words. So, they were to adopt the sword of "Jihad." 25 This was now their primary means of subduing the masses to the will of Allah.

Muhammad was a natural leader and began to unify the people. Muslims conducted a series of twenty-seven raids on other Arabian tribes and caravans. They looted and pillaged and killed many of those opposing them. Others were taken as slaves. Islam began gaining new territories.

At first Muhammad even attempted to win some Jews; he ordered that his disciples turn in the direction of Jerusalem when praying. However, seeing there were a lot of discrepancies between the Qur'an and the Jewish scriptures, this soon changed as the Jews rejected Muhammad and his claim as prophet. In time, Muhammad became more critical of the Jews (cf. 9:29; 98:6).

His tribal unification policies led to the use of violence. His Qur'an of course endorsed his policies (2:244; 22:39-40):

They will question you concerning the holy month, and fighting in it. Say: 'Fighting in it is a heinous thing, but to bar people from God's way, to disbelieve in Him and the Holy Mosque and to expel its people from it — that is more heinous in God's sight; and persecution is more heinous than fighting (2:217).

Special incentives were added as rewards for others to join his cause (cf. 4:95-96; 3:194-95).

Muhammad's Life of Violence

Islam is not only a religion, but also a government system. It fought. The Battle of Badr (624 A.D.), Uhud (625 A.D.), the Siege of Medina (627 A.D.), and the Conquest of Mecca (630 A.D.) all point to a religion that is violent, not peaceful.

Muhammad's (Allah's) message became more and more intolerant as Muhammad gained power. It was at Medina that Islam evolved from a somewhat peaceful religion (borrowed from others) into a vicious military force. It desired and still desires to rule every aspect of life. During years of Muhammad's life, "infidels" (unbelievers) were enslaved, converted upon point of death, or even slaughtered.

As previously stated, Muhammad's followers raided Meccan caravans. His followers gradually developed a lust for loot that could be taken in battle. This included captured women and children. Though many made pleas for their lives, Muhammad had many executed.

The first major battle involving a Muslim army was the Battle of Badr. Although, Muslims today "claim" that they only attack others in self-defense, this was not the case in Muhammad's era. Muhammad even compelled his reluctant warriors with promises of paradise!

Muhammad defeated the Meccan army at Badr. Next were three local Jewish tribes at Medina (Banu Nadir, Banu Qaynuqa, and Banu Qurayza). His methodology is instructive and still used today:

1. Try and gain their favor.
2. Use deception.
3. Forcible conversion.

The Jews of the Banu Qurayza tasted a unique side of Muhammad's wrath. Although the Qurayza's surrendered peacefully to the Muslims, Muhammad executed every adult male, as well as every boy (ages of 12-14). He commanded that a ditch be dug outside of the town. He had the victims brought in several groups. Each person would be: (1) forced to kneel, (2) their head would be cut off, and (3) then their bodies dumped into the trench. Hundreds were murdered. 26 We see such things today modeled by Radical-Islam.

The surviving children became slaves. Many widows became sex-slaves. Muhammad ordered that a fifth of the women taken captive to be reserved for him. He even gave instructions on how women should be raped after capture. 27 He justified all this from his Qur'an:

Also (forbidden are) women already married, except those whom your right hands possess. Thus has Allah ordained for you. All others are lawful, provided you seek them from your property, desiring chastity, not fornication. So with those among them whom you have enjoyed, give them their required due, but if you agree mutually after the requirement (has been determined), there is no sin on you. Surely, Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise (4:24).

From Medina, Muhammad told his followers that Muslims were meant to rule over other peoples. Supremacist teachings became the driving force behind Jihad. These type teachings and actions still exist today. 28

In 628 Muhammad's followers re-entered Mecca under an agreement whereby he set aside his title as "Prophet of Allah." But this was merely a ruse that would eventually enable him to gain a political foothold in the city. He used what are commonly called "fifth column" activities:

A fifth column is any group of people who undermine a larger group — such as a nation or a besieged city — from within. The activities of a fifth column can be overt or clandestine. Forces gathered in secret can mobilize openly to assist an external attack. This term is also extended to organized actions by military personnel. Clandestine fifth column activities can involve acts of sabotage, disinformation, or espionage executed within defense lines by secret sympathizers with an external force. 29

These types of activities are still used today by organizations such as the Council on American Islamic Relations (CAIR). "When the Transportation Security Administration announced a new training program - some may call it an indoctrination program - that would be mandated for more than 45,000 security officers and supervisors at airports throughout the nation, clear thinking Americans did a double-take. This CAIR (Council on American-Islamic Relations) endorsed training program was billed as "Muslim Sensitivity Training." 30 Note they still use their host's language of religious tolerance to disguise their ultimate agenda!

It was during this time that Muhammad led the campaign against the Khaybar. His followers conducted deadly raids on Meccan caravans. Oddly, the excuse that Muhammad eventually used to march his armies into Mecca was provided when a tribe allied to the Meccans conducted a raid on a tribe allied with the Medinans. So, he could conduct raids, but others couldn't? Hypocritical to say the least.

Muhammad had evolved from selling himself as a prophet and seeking supporters, to an Arab terrorist seeking subjects, slaves, and total dominance.

Following Mecca's surrender, Muhammad put numerous people to death.

Muhammad's Personal Life

Muhammad's personal life is a picture of hedonism. 31 He even sanctioned these activities through his Qur'an (see, suras 33 and 66, etc.). 32

While earlier Muhammad justified his claims as a prophet by saying that he "asked for no reward" from others, later in life he began to demand a fifth or more of all booty taken. He was getting fat off of ill-gotten gain.

He had many wives and sex-slaves. As a pedophile, he even justified a child as young as 9-years-old (a girl named Aisha). 33 Once again, he justified what he did through his Qur'an. Sura 66 was narrated by Muhammad to his wives shortly after two of them pressured him into not visiting a favorite sex-slave. He says:

O Prophet! why do you forbid (yourself) that which Allah has made lawful for you, seeking to please your wives? (66:1)

Allah (according to Muhammad of course) was upset with his chief prophet for denying himself sexual pleasure. So as is easily seen, Islam became centered completely on its founder — sin, self, and Satan ruled the day. Of all the prophets (25 in Islam), new converts are required only to affirm the legitimacy of Muhammad. Islam is self-centered around the sex-driven pedophile Muhammad; the Shahada says, "There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is his messenger." Muslims still bow down five times a day "toward" Muhammad's birthplace — Mecca.

This is a true prophet?

Muhammad's Final Pilgrimage and Death

In 632 Muhammad led a pilgrimage to Mecca. There he delivered his farewell address to of thousands of followers. He died a natural death in June 632.

Some of Qur'an's Violent Verses

Some of the most violent verses in the Qur'an were handed down following Muhammad's ascension to power, when there was no threat to Islam or Muslim's. The 9th Sura of the Quran especially exhorts Muslims to Jihad and dominance over other religions:

8:39 "Fight them until all opposition ends and all submit to Allah."

8:39 "So fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief, non-Muslims) and all submit to the religion of Allah alone (world-wide dominion)."

8:65 "O Prophet, urge the faithful to fight. If there are twenty among you with determination they will vanquish two hundred; if there are a hundred then they will slaughter a thousand unbelievers, for the infidels are a people devoid of understanding."

9:5 "Fight and kill the disbelievers wherever you find them, take them captive, harass them, lie in wait and ambush them using every stratagem of war."

9:29 "Fight those who do not believe until they all surrender, paying the protective tax in submission."

9:88 "The Messenger and those who believe with him, strive hard and fight with their wealth and lives in Allah's Cause."

9:112 "The Believers fight in Allah's Cause, they slay and are slain, kill and are killed."

9:123 "Fight the unbelievers around you, and let them find harshness in you."

There are 164 Jihad verses in the Qur'an. 34

Islam After Muhammad's Death

After Mohammed's death, various factions within Arabia revolted against Islam. These included Christians and Jews. The successors of Mohammed took over. These were called "Caliphs." 35 The first Caliph, Abu Bakr, recalled the Muslim army from Syria to stop a revolt at home. This revolt resulted in a fierce war called Ridda Wars. 36 This war was waged against those that were attempting to leave Islam. Caliph Abu Bakr offered the Islamic revolutionaries a combination of (1) enticements and (2) physical threats — the 'carrot and stick' approach.

From 637-644 A.D. the second Caliph, Omar 37, authorized a number of successful raids to subdue many of the neighboring countries. These included, (1) Egypt, (2) Palestine, (3) Syria, (4) Iraq and (5) Iran. Islam was spreading once again!

Islam began to make inroads to a new world order. They conquered North Africa and all but destroyed Byzantine Christianity. They subjugated all of Central Asia, the Middle East, and a huge part of India. They went through most of Spain and Portugal. Approximately, one-third of France was captured, but in the Battle of Tours 38 they were stopped from entering Paris. Their occupation of Spain lasted a few hundred years, until they were driven back to North Africa.

History reveals to us that Islam is not a religion of peace. They even attacked nations that did not pose a threat to them. Their marching orders were clear:

When the forbidden months are past, then fight and slay the Pagans wherever ye find them, and seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them in every stratagem (of war); but if they repent, and establish regular prayers and practice regular charity, then open the way for them: for Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful. 39

In dealing with Christians and Jews ("People of the Book" 40) the Quran did not call for their deaths, but commanded Muslims to:

Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, nor acknowledge the religion of Truth, (even if they are) of the People of the Book, until they pay the Jizya 41 with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued. 42

"Arabization" was employed. 43 Muslims attempted to erase the identities of people. They systematically abolished their indigenous cultures and languages and replaced them with Arab culture and language. Christians and Jews would lose their citizenship if they did not comply. They essentially became second-class citizens — Dhimmitudes. 44 For this privilege and protection they were expected to pay a tax called the Jizya.

Christians and Jews were also made to obey a list of rules in what is known as "the Pact of Omar." 45 They were forced to sign a document, authored by Omar, agreeing to certain regulations and prohibitions. 46

A second wave of Islamization took place in the seventeenth Century. The Ottoman Empire's Muslim Turks 47 attempted to expand their rule into Europe. They captured Bulgaria, Greece, Yugoslavia, and sections of Romania and Hungary. By 1683 they had reached the gates of Vienna, but they were stopped by Western forces.

Islam failed to conquer Europe and fell into a state of depression. In the mid-nineteenth the Ottoman Empire to stop collecting the Jizya tax from Christians and Jews living in the Islamic world. Their second-class status was officially abolished, but many of its provisions lingered on in the Islamic world.

Islamic re-awakening began taking place in the 20th Century. This time it was driven by the sword known as "oil." Supply and demand; and Arab and Islamic countries have the supply.

In this century, it is politically incorrect to criticize Islam or Muslims. 48 Muslims now have the means to finance their call to convert the world to Islam. Presently Muslims sense that they have the upper hand once again and thus are becoming increasingly more aggressive in the West.


Part 2: Engaging Islam

Winston Churchill saw the destruction and spread of Islam coming. In 1899, when he was yet a journalist and young soldier, he delivered a speech and said:

How dreadful are the curses which Mohammedanism lays on its votaries! Besides the fanatical frenzy, which is as dangerous in a man as hydrophobia in a dog, there is this fearful fatalistic apathy. The effects are apparent in many countries, improvident habits, slovenly systems of agriculture, sluggish methods of commerce, and insecurity of property exist wherever the followers of the Prophet rule or live. A degraded sensualism deprives this life of its grace and refinement the next of its dignity and sanctity. The fact that in Mohammedan law every woman must belong to some man as his absolute property, either as a child, a wife, or a concubine, must delay the final extinction of slavery until the faith of Islam has ceased to be a great power among men.

Individual Moslems may show splendid qualities, but the influence of the religion paralyses the social development of those who follow it. No stronger retrograde force exists in the world.

Far from being moribund, Mohammedanism is a militant and proselytizing faith. It has already spread throughout Central Africa, raising fearless warriors at every step; and were it not that Christianity is sheltered in the strong arms of science, the science against which it had vainly struggled, the civilization of modern Europe might fall, as fell the civilization of ancient Rome. 49

Christianity, Islam, and Hinduism embrace nearly two-thirds of the world's population. 50 Islam is the world's second largest religion! It has over one billion followers called Muslims. That is one-fifth of humanity! CNN reports, "Islam, the world's fastest-growing faith, will leap from 1.6 billion (in 2010) to 2.76 billion by 2050, according to the Pew study. At that time, Muslims will make up nearly one-third of the world's total projected population of about 9 billion people." 51

How should the church respond to this great cult? Here we will look briefly at a Christian's preparation, evangelism, missions towards Islam. Also we will briefly look at the use of not only love towards Muslims, but also violence, if needed.


The church needs to respond to this war through: (1) prayer, (2) fasting, (3) diligent study, and (4) genuine listening. This needs to be a conscientious and continuous effort.

I. Prayer

2 Chronicles 7:14 states, "If my people who are called by My name humble themselves and pray and seek My face and turn from their wicked ways, then I will hear from heaven, will forgive their sin and will heal their land."

The first step in listening evangelism is prayer.

Devote Muslims bow towards Mecca and prayer five times a day. If we seek to evangelize those in Islam to the truth that is in Christ alone, we need to understand that this war is first spiritual (cf. Dan 10:13) and it begins in prayer. 52 Jesus is a man of prayer and gave instructions for prayer (Matt 6:1-15). Part of prayer is listening to God.

John Calvin calls prayer "the chief exercise of faith… by which we daily receive God's benefits." 53 The Confession of Faith, 21.3, states, "Prayer, with thanksgiving, being one special part of religious worship, is by God required of all men." If we pray rightly, God promises to listen (2 Chron. 7:14-15). He not only hears, but responds: "And this is the confidence that we have toward him, that if we ask anything according to his will he hears us. And if we know that he hears us in whatever we ask, we know that we have the requests that we have asked of him" (1 John 5:14-15).

In John 14:13, Jesus sums up the purpose of prayer: "that the Father would be glorified in the Son." In everything we do, we should pray, thus revealing our love not only for God, but others as well. Prayer communicates the very love of God.

God moves in response to prayer. Prayer demonstrates the gospel, communicates our love, interest, and hope that through the Spirit alone opens up effectual ways for proclamation. As we pray for others, God's love, hope, and blessing are communicated. Answers to prayer draw attention to Christ. They illumine the gospel, which is essential for evangelization.

God commands that his church (his body), every member, every Christian pray. Every believer has a role and a work to accomplish in prayer. Everyone is summoned to join in the work of praying for the world and for others (Matt 28:18-20; John 17:20-21; Acts 2:42-47).

Prayer can be done is numerous ways. It should begin with being individual. It should also be corporate. Church come together and pray in faith.

Church let's win Muslims with prayer.

II. Fasting

In Matthew 6:16, Jesus spoke to his disciples and said, "And when you fast [not 'if'], do not look gloomy like the hypocrites, for they disfigure their faces that their fasting may be seen by others. Truly, I say to you, they have received their reward."

The second step in listening evangelism is fasting.

While it may be applied differently, fasting 54 is essentially the laying aside of food for a period of time so the believer may seek to be closer to God — and listen. It is a scripturally based blessing, opportunity, and discipline that is appropriate for all believers of all ages throughout all centuries.

There are numerous examples of proper safe fasting in Scripture: (1) David when his son was close to death (2 Sam. 12:16), (2) the Ninevites (Jon. 3:7), (3) Jesus when he was tempted (Matt. 4:2), and (4) Paul his Damascus encounter (Acts 9:9). See Judges 20:26; 1 Samuel 31:13; Nehemiah 1:4; 9:1.

The early church fasted. Ambrose fasted "daily." 55 In his Homilies on Leviticus 10.3, Origen said:

If you want to fast according to Christ and to humble your soul, every time of the entire year is open to you; moreover, hold all the days of your life for humbling your soul, if you have learned from the Lord our Savior that he is gentle and lowly in heart (Matt 11:29). When, therefore is there not a day of humiliation for you who follow Christ who is lowly in heart and a teacher of humility? 56

Chrysostom wrote:

Do you fast? Give me proof of it by your works. If you see a poor man, take pity on him. If you see a friend being honored, do not envy him. Do not let only your mouth fast, but also the eye, and the ear, and the feet, and the hands, and all the members of our bodies. 57

Fasting is obeying and listening to God. It is prayer. Denying self is a way of putting God and others first. The more of self that is out of the way, the more we are in a position to sincerely listen to God.

Fasting is to be done with the object of seeking to know God (Isa 58:1; Zech 7:5). It is a time of confession (Psa 69:10). It is a time of prayer (Ezra 8:23; Joel 2:12). As with prayer, fasts may be done individually or corporately. The early church often fasted in seeking God's direction for leadership in the local church (Acts 13:2).

Church, let's win Muslims with fasting.

III. Study

The third step in listening evangelism is study.

A. Study of the Bible

1 Peter 3:15 says, but sanctify in your hearts Christ as Lord: being ready always to give answer [Gk. apologia] to every man that asketh you a reason concerning the hope that is in you, yet with meekness and fear:

The saint is to study so he can skillfully use the Word of God to counter Islam (cf. 2 Tim 2:15). However, note that the context of 1 Peter 3:15 is located within an ethical argument for how we ought to live (1 Pet 3:8-17; cf. 1 Cor. 9:3). As Christians we are called to an ethical and relational way of life. Only here do we by the Spirit persuasively speak the word of truth. One may not properly do Christian Apologetics (Gk. apologia) without a Jesus kind of life. 58 So, the Christian needs to answer the question, "In light of the Cross, how then should I live." First live the gospel then share it.

The church needs to be 'be diligent to present ourselves approved to God as workman who do not need to be ashamed, accurately handling the word of truth' (2 Tim 2:15). Simply put, we need to know what the Bible teaches about God, others, and ourselves. We need to have a good understanding of systematic theology, biblical history, architecture, geography, etc. The 'People of the Book,' 59 need to know the Book.

What is apologetics? One of my previous professors, Dr. John Frame, defined apologetics as "the theological discipline that defends the truth of the Christian message." 60 Scripturally we see that Paul defended the Christian message in Acts 19:33, 22:1, 24:10. Luke imparted the certainty of the gospel to Theophilus (Luke 1:4; compare with Acts 1:3). Even the use of "signs" by John is apologetic in nature (John 20:30-31). Paul says, "because our gospel came to you not only in word, but also in power and in the Holy Spirit and with full conviction. You know what kind of men we proved to be among you for your sake" (1 Thess 1:5). Paul adds that another certainty of the truth of the gospel is the willingness to "suffer" for it (1 Thess 1:6; 2:14; 2 Thess 1:4). John Frame says, if theology is "the application of Scripture to all areas of life," then apologetics is "the application of Scripture to unbelief." 61

Of course, Paul taught that "the man without the Spirit does not accept the things that come from the Spirit of God…" (1 Cor. 2:14). They cannot even "know" them. It is possible to know God in one's mind (Rom. 1:19-20), but not in the heart (Rom. 1:18). So, the Spirit's work of illumination is imperative (John 3:1-8; 16:8; Eph. 2:1; Tit 3:5-7).

B. Study of Islam

2 Corinthians 2:11 "so that we would not be outwitted by Satan; for we are not ignorant of his designs."

As Islam goes about "as a roaring lion seeking someone to devour" (1 Pet 5:8), the saint is not to be ignorant of its deceptions (2 Cor 2:11). 1 Peter 5:8 actually begins with the words "Be sober-minded; be watchful." How can we do either, if we do not know what to watch for?

As seen from the brief description in the first part of this paper, Islam is very deceptive. Islam is not only a religion, but also a form of government. It don't use mere words; at times it uses a sword. As children of Satan (cf. John 8:44) they seek to "steal, and kill, and destroy" (John 10:10).

I use to be a homicide detective. I studied serial killers, mythology, types of weapons, etc. To catch murderers I had to know them, while not becoming them. What are Islam's methodologies? What are their strengths? Weaknesses? We need to know our enemy, which means knowing Islam. We must be familiar with our audience.

What does 'Adhan, 'Ahad, 'Adl, or Al-Birr mean? Islam is a new language for most of us. What do they believe about Jesus? Do they believe he is God? Do they believe in the resurrection of Christ? Does Islam believe in the Trinity? Do Muslims believe in the Bible or do they think it is full of contradictions? What do we know about Islam? We need to know the enemy of the one and only living God. 62

However, being ready is not just a matter of having the proper information (right definitions and theological arguments, etc.). It is also a loving attitude of readiness and eagerness to share the truth of the gospel. This is the most difficult part, isn't it?

Church let's win Muslims with proper study.

IV. Listen

Luke 2:46 Then, after three days they found Him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the teachers, both listening to them and asking them questions.

The fourth step in listening evangelism is to actually listen.

The church needs to "listen" when it evangelizes. Prayer, fasting, and study help one become determined and able listeners of others. When you go to the doctor his diagnosis begins with listening. He then asks questions. Only then does he prescribe a course of action. The Great Physician says listen first, as only then are you qualified to prescribe.

Some are more interested in evangelism than evangelism. Yes, you read that correctly. What I mean is some do evangelism just to say — "I did it." It is just a check box in their spiritual inventory list; 'I used a tool in my spiritual tool belt.' However, true evangelism begins with patient genuine listening. It is a proper use of every spiritual tool on our tool belt. It takes time. It takes dedication. It takes love. It takes faith.

Listen to the news and discover where needs exist. Listen to Muslims. They have needs. They have hurts. Muslims have unmet desires. Don't assume what these are — listen and ask simple questions. Listen to not only what is said, but also what is not said — learn to read between the lines. Then fill in the blanks. Only when we properly listen will we be given permission to share the truth; otherwise we are merely talking to the crescent moon, 63 because the face is not listening.

Church let's win Muslims by listening.

Missions and Muslims

Now is the day of listening missions and evangelism (Matt 28:18-20).

Now that we are in the process of preparing ourselves to evangelize Muslims, it is time for action — service. Please note that one will never be completely "prepared." If we wait until we learn every 'jot and tittle' of Islam before we share, we will never evangelize a single Muslim. We can pray and fast, but do we ever pray enough?

By missions we mean sharing the truth of God's Word, but also serving Muslims that are suffering (feeding the hungry, providing medical assistance, agricultural and building programs, schooling, etc.).

During the first few centuries of Islam there was no attempt by the church to evangelize Muslims in such a manner. Barton says:

We have no record of an endeavor to Christianize the Moslems or of any discussions to that end. Perhaps one reason for this is that Christianity was so upon the defensive that its entire energy was expended in preventing its own forces from being overwhelmed by the onward rush of Mohammedans as they moved outward in their attempt to conquer their immediate neighbors, if not the entire world. Christianity therefore was in armed conflict with Islam, largely in defense… 64

At present, we are not in the Crusades. 65 Hopefully there will never be another period in history like that one. In this era, we need to look for opportunities to engage Muslims; the grocery store, the coffee house, the gas station, etc. Indeed, not only do we need to seek these opportunities, but also we need to be good listeners when we discover them. Marsh says:

Take every opportunity of being friendly with Muslim neighbours, shopkeepers and others. Show them that you love them in practical ways. Do not try to preach at them. Be a good listener. This is where we are failing today in every land. We must listen to the other man sympathetically and patiently. Then we shall understand his point of view, his difficulties, and where he has misunderstood Christianity. 66

As horrible as the teachings of this Isalm are, there is still hope, as the one true and living God is sovereign. Presently, there are more Muslims coming to faith in Christ than in the last fifteen centuries of Islam. David Garrison says there is a revival in the Muslim world. 67 There are several organizations working in some respect to evangelize Muslims: (1) Christian Reformed World Missions, (2) Middle East Reformed Fellowship, (3) Iranian Christians International, (4) Arabic Bible Outreach Ministry, and (5) Indonesian Christian Fellowship, to name a few. China's "Back to Jerusalem" movement alone is attempting to field 100,000 laborers, with many heading to the Muslim world. 68 Opportunities to make a difference exist even here in the USA; 30 Days of Prayer for Muslim World — June 18 to July 17. 69 God is at work.

As Christians our primary concern about Islam should not be civilization or geo-political, but theological and putting out theology to work in real life by serving those we disagree with. Jesus alone is "the way, the truth, and the life," and that no one comes to the Father but by him (John 14:6). Salvation is found only through faith in the Lord Jesus Christ (Acts 4:12). The gospel of Christ is the only message that saves.

Church let's win Muslims with missions.

"What if?"

A New War from Islam

(a Last Resort)

The Crusades were a delayed response to Islam's ongoing aggression. Depending on how one groups them, the Crusades lasted from 1095-1291. They were a series of holy wars called by Roman Catholic Popes. There were eight expeditions to the holy lands. 70 It was a violent and bloody time in history.

The Crusades were in response to Islamic jihad. At first, they were defensive in nature. They were met to recover the holy lands. For centuries, Jerusalem had been governed by Muslims. Imperialistic conquest wars were launched for more than 1,500 years against hundreds of nations and over millions of square miles. In the 1070s, Turks (Muslim's) conquered these holy lands. The Turks also threatened the Byzantine Empire. Emperor Alexius asked the pope for assistance, and Pope Urban II, made a speech calling for them to take back Jerusalem. Thousands responded, resulting in the First Crusade.

Today every faithful Muslim prays, hopes, and works for the submission of the whole world to the Qur'an. Some are rather peaceful in their endeavors. We commonly call these "Moderate Islam." However, "what if" they turn once again to the "sword" — "Radical Islam." Some already have!

What if a more extensive jihad began today? What if Islam began to use the "sword" in America and used their violent means to attempt to overthrow the world once again? What if they took over the government and said, "submit or die?" How should the church respond?

Luke 3:14 allows for military service. John the Baptist when speaking about repentance did not instruct the soldiers to leave the military. Since it is possible to be both Christian and in the military, engaging in war is not necessarily sinful.

In John 18:36 we observe that earthly kingdoms have a right to the sword. Jesus says: "My kingdom is not of this world. If my kingdom were of this world, my servants would have been fighting, that I might not be delivered over to the Jews. But my kingdom is not from the world." Christ makes some incredible points here:

(1) The church should not use the sword to spread Christ's gospel.

(2) The state can use the sword. The kingdoms of this world may fight a just war.

While Christ reveals to us that it is never right to use a literal sword for the sake of his kingdom (we use spiritual weapons, Eph 6:10-18), that right does exist for the state within certain parameters (self-defense, just war, etc.).

In Romans 13:3-4, Paul writes:

For rulers are not a terror to the good work, but to the evil. And wouldest thou have no fear of the power? do that which is good, and thou shalt have praise from the same: for he is a minister of God to thee for good. But if thou do that which is evil, be afraid; for he beareth not the sword in vain: for he is a minister of God, an avenger for wrath to him that doeth evil.

Here, Paul affirms the government's right to use force in two ways: (1) the government "beareth not the sword in vain" and (2) the government is a "minister of God" when it executes vengeance against those that do evil. So, God grants limited powers to the state to justly use the sword. 1 Peter 2:13-14 confirms the truth of Romans 13:3-4.

However, governments do not have the right to use force for each and every purpose under the sun; rather only for the restraint of evil and the punishment of evil. For instance, they do not have the right to use force to impose unnecessary restraints upon freedom. 71 They do not have the right to make its citizens submit to Islam.

This right of government extends even to war. The immediate context of Romans 13 has in mind the use of the sword in regard to a government's own citizens. But what if a nation commits an act of war against another? Romans 13 by extension means that an offended nation has the right to engage in self-defense. 72 They have a right to avenge the wrong. They "bear not the sword in vain."

This just use of Romans 13 is normally understood within the context of what is called "Just War." 73 While all wars are of the result of humanity's sin, God can justly use war as a secondary cause of his sovereignty in this world. While Christians should do all in their power to promote peace, they must at times also perform the solemn duty of protecting their country against terrorists and other aggressors. The Westminster Confession of Faith 23.2 states that the civil magistrate, in his job of maintaining justice, may "wage war upon just and necessary occasion."

St. Augustine of Hippo in looking at the Bible viewed some wars as necessary to amend evil. 74 St. Thomas Aquinas created three criteria for a just war: (1) the war needed to be waged by a legitimate authority, (2) have a just cause, and (3) have the right intentions. 75 In time this developed into the criteria of Just War Theory (jus bellum iustum):

1. Just cause. This is clearly the most important rule; it sets the tone for everything which follows. A state may launch a war only for the right reason. The just causes most frequently mentioned include: self-defence from external attack; the defence of others from such; the protection of innocents from brutal, aggressive regimes; and punishment for a grievous wrongdoing which remains uncorrected.

2. Right intention. A state must intend to fight the war only for the sake of its just cause. Having the right reason for launching a war is not enough: the actual motivation behind the resort to war must also be morally appropriate. Ulterior motives, such as a power or land grab, or irrational motives, such as revenge or ethnic hatred, are ruled out. The only right intention allowed is to see the just cause for resorting to war secured and consolidated. If another intention crowds in, moral corruption sets in. International law does not include this rule, probably because of the evidentiary difficulties involved in determining a state's intent.

3. Proper authority and public declaration. A state may go to war only if the decision has been made by the appropriate authorities, according to the proper process, and made public, notably to its own citizens and to the enemy state(s). The "appropriate authority" is usually specified in that country's constitution. States failing the requirements of minimal justice lack the legitimacy to go to war.

4. Last Resort. A state may resort to war only if it has exhausted all plausible, peaceful alternatives to resolving the conflict in question, in particular diplomatic negotiation. One wants to make sure something as momentous and serious as war is declared only when it seems the last practical and reasonable shot at effectively resisting aggression.

5. Probability of Success. A state may not resort to war if it can foresee that doing so will have no measurable impact on the situation. The aim here is to block mass violence which is going to be futile. International law does not include this requirement, as it is seen as biased against small, weaker states.

6. Proportionality. A state must, prior to initiating a war, weigh the universal goods expected to result from it, such as securing the just cause, against the universal evils expected to result, notably casualties. Only if the benefits are proportional to, or "worth", the costs may the war action proceed. (The universal must be stressed, since often in war states only tally their own expected benefits and costs, radically discounting those accruing to the enemy and to any innocent third parties). 76

So, war — a just war — may be justified by a civil magistrate.

Is it right for a Christian to fight in a war? Since a nation can engage in a just war, it follows that it is right for a Christian to fight in such a war. While Christian soldiers should strive as much as possible to love one's enemies in war, to submit to tyranny is to fail to show love to one's neighbor, the second greatest commandment (Matt. 22:39). Even Christ used force to bring his points home at times (John 2:15; cf. Deut 7:1-5; 20:17; Josh 12:7-24; 1 Kings 18:40, et. al.).

So, if Islam invaded our nation and verbal and written arguments, and peaceful protests, and marches did not work and Muslims or other government officials attempted to use force to impose their sanctions upon Christians then we would be justified (after prayer, fasting, and insuring the Just War parameters are met, etc.) in using whatever force deemed necessary to resist such. Jesus put methodical thought into his fashioning a whip for a specific purpose and he used it with skill (John 2:15). The church needs to think through this issue now.

It is noteworthy that Jesus instructed his disciples to go out and purchase swords, not shields — offensive weapons, not defensive (Luke 22:36). The Second Amendment was alive and well in the time of Christ. God is no pacifist (Gen 3:24; Num 22:23; Deut 32:39; Jos 5:13-14; Psa 45:3; Rev 2:12). 77 Christians are allowed to defend themselves. Although unlike Islam, Christians should not to try to spread the gospel with the "sword" (John 18:36), they can and should defend themselves against improper government control and acts of terrorism (Rom 13:1-4).

May God give us wisdom to discern when to use a peaceful argument or to use a whip, or both.

While I believe in defending my faith and combating that which is wrong, we need to be biblical in how we do it. This is not always easy.

Appendix A: Timeline of Muhammad's Life

570 - Born in Mecca
576 - Orphaned upon death of mother
595 - Marries Kadijah — older, wealthy widow
610 - Reports of first revelations from angel at age of 42
619 - Uncle dies
622 - Emigrates from Mecca to Medina — the Hijra
623 - Orders raids on Meccan caravans
624 - Battle of Badr — victory
624 - Evicts Qaynuqa Jews from Medina
624 - Orders the assassination of Abu Afak
624 - Orders the assassination of Asma bint Marwan
624 - Orders the assassination of Ka'b al-Ashraf
625 - Battle of Uhud — defeat
625 - Evicts Nadir Jews
627 - Battle of the Trench — victory
627 - Massacre of the Qurayza Jews
628 - Signing of the Treaty of Hudaibiya with Mecca
628 - Destruction and subjugation of the Khaybar Jews
629 - Orders first raid into Christian lands at Muta — defeat
630 - Conquers Mecca by surprise
631 - Leads second raid into Christian territory at Tabuk — no battle
632 - Death — natural causes


  1. McDowell, Bruce A. McDowell and Zaka, Anees. (1999). Muslims and Christians at the Table: Promoting Biblical Understanding Among North American Muslims (Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R).
  2. 622 B.C. This was Muhammad's migration from Mecca to Medina, considered the beginning of the Islamic calendar. See Nally, Joseph. "Journey to Mecca." IIM. https://thirdmill.org/answers/answer.asp/file/40469 Last Accessed: 05/15/2015.
  3. "Lissan al-Arab, one of the most authoritative lexicons of the Arabic language, mentions that the word 'Islam' is derived from the root verb istaslama (which means 'to submit' or 'give in' or 'surrender.'" Wiki-Islam. "The Meaning of Islam." http://wikiislam.net/wiki/The_Meaning_of_Islam Last Accessed: 05/15/2015.
  4. Islam is -the religion of peace- because: the Arabic word Islam is derived from the Arabic word "Al-Salaam" which means peace.

    It might seem strange to think of this as a misconception, but in fact it is. The root word of Islam is "al-silm" which means "submission" or "surrender." It is understood to mean "submission to Allah." In spite of whatever noble intention has caused many a Muslim to claim that Islam is derived primarily from peace, this is not true. Allah says in the Qur'an (translated):

    [2:136] Say (O Muslims): We believe in Allah and that which is revealed to us and that which was revealed to Abraham, and Ishmael, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the tribes, and that which Moses and Jesus received, and that which the prophets received from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and to Him we have surrendered. [Arabic "Muslimoon"]

    A secondary root of Islam may be "Al-Salaam" (peace), however the text of the Qur'an makes it clear that Allah has clearly intended the focus of this way of life to be submission to Him. This entails submission to Him at all times, in times of peace, war, ease, or difficulty. Wiki-Islam. "The Meaning of Islam." http://wikiislam.net/wiki/The_Meaning_of_Islam Last Accessed: 05/15/2015.

  5. Nally, Joseph. "Muhammad the Prophet of Peace? - Jeremiah 28:9." IIM. https://thirdmill.org/answers/answer.asp/file/40475 Last Accessed: 05/15/2015.
  6. The Qur'ān is the central religious text of Islam. Muslims believe the Qur'an to be the book of divine guidance and direction for mankind. They also consider the text in its original Arabic, to be the literal word of Allah revealed by the angel Jibreel (Gabriel) to Muhammad over a period of twenty-three years, and view the Qur'an as God's final revelation. Wiki-Islam. "What is the Qur'an?" http://wikiislam.net/wiki/Qur%27an_(definition) Last Accessed: 05/15/2015.
  7. Hughes, Thomas Patrick. (1886). Dictionary of Islam. London: Allen and Do.
  8. Ibid.
  9. Ibid.
  10. See: Wiki-Islam. "Muslim Statistics (Scripture)." http://wikiislam.net/wiki/Muslim_Statistics_-_Scripture Last Accessed: 05/21/2015.
  11. According to Islam, Allah is the Creator of the Universe. Allah does not mean 'God' but rather 'the God' and is thus one of the remnants of Islam's pagan origins. In the pre-Islamic era, Allah was the supreme creator god of the Arabs. Yet he was still only one god among the many others they believed in. Wiki-Islam. "Allah." http://wikiislam.net/wiki/Allah_(definition) Last Accessed: 05/16/2015.
  12. Webster's says, "from the traditional alternatives of driving a donkey on by either holding out a carrot or whipping it with a stick. Thus, the use of both reward and punishment to induce cooperation."
  13. Some maintain that even though Pres. Barack Hussein Obama claims to be a Christian that he is still a Muslim: (1) his middle name is "Hussein," (2) his late, estranged father was of Muslim descent, (3) he has shown interest in his father's Kenyan heritage, and (4) attended a Muslim school while living in Indonesia. See Conservapedia. "Obama's Religion." http://www.conservapedia.com/Obama's_Religion Last Accessed: 05/15/2015. Asia Sentinel. "Once a Muslim, Always a Muslim in Malaysia." http://www.asiasentinel.com/society/once-a-muslim-always-a-muslim-in-malaysia/ Last Accessed: 05/15/2015.
  14. This is an exceptionally short view of Muhammad's life. Please see: "Appendix A: Timeline of Muhammad" for more details.
  15. Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. "Muhammad." Encyclopedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/396226/Muhammad Last Accessed: 05/15/2015.
  16. Geisler, N. L., & Saleeb, A. (2002). Answering Islam: the crescent in light of the cross (2nd ed.). Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, pp. 70-71.
  17. The Hajj is the largest annual pilgrimage in the world: today it draws between two and three million Muslims during the Hajj season (in the twelfth month of the Islamic calendar), and an equal number during the rest of the year (a voluntary pious act called 'umra). Toorawa, S. M. (2011). Islam. In R. Allen & S. M. Toorawa (Eds.), Islam: A Short Guide to the Faith. Grand Rapids, MI; Cambridge, U.K.: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, p. 10.
  18. In the province of Hejaz in the western part of Arabia, not far from the Red Sea, there lies the town of Makka (Mecca). In the center of this town there is a small square building made of stones, about 60 feet long, 60 feet wide and 60 feet high. Since time immemorial this town and this stone built house has been known to world travelers. This is Baitullah, the House of Allah. Its sanctity and antiquity is older than history itself. Tradition goes that the Kaaba was ordained by Allah to be built in the shape of the House in Heaven called Baitul Ma'amoor. Allah in his infinite Mercy ordained a similar place on earth and Prophet Adam was the first to build this place. During the Hajj and Umrah, Muslims are to move around the Kaaba seven times, in a counterclockwise direction. Al-Islam.org. "The Ka'aba, The House Of Allah." http://www.al-islam.org/story-of-the-holy-kaaba-and-its-people-shabbar/kaaba-house-allah Last Accessed: 05/19/2015.
  19. The Black Stone is the eastern cornerstone of the Kaaba. It is located in the center of the Grand Mosque in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. It is revered by Muslims as an Islamic relic which, according to Muslim tradition, dates back to the time of Adam and Eve. Sheikh Safi-ur-Rehman al-Mubarkpuri (2002). Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum (The Sealed Nectar): Biography of the Prophet. Dar-us-Salam Publications.
  20. This is known as "the Satanic Verses" in which Muhammad agreed to recognize local gods in addition to Allah. Later, he changed his mind. He claimed that Satan had spoken through him and therefore, rescinded recognition of the Meccan gods (22:52; 53:19-26).
  21. The name Allah, as the Quran itself is witness, was well known in pre-Islamic Arabia. Indeed, both it and its feminine form, Allat, are found not infrequently among the theophorous names in inscriptions from North Africa. Arthur Jeffery, ed. (1958). Islam: Muhammad and His Religion. (New York: The Liberal Arts Press), p. 85.
  22. Al-Uzza ("The Most Mighty") is a pre-Islamic Arabian Goddess, the youngest in the triad of Goddesses with Menat. Thalia Took. "Al-Uzza." http://www.thaliatook.com/AMGG/aluzza.php Last Accessed: 05/16/2015.
  23. The most ancient of all these idols was Manat. The Arabs used to name [their children] 'Abd-Manat and Zayd-Manat. Manat was erected on the seashore in the vicinity of al-Mushallal in Qudayd, between Medina and Mecca. Faris, Nabih Amin (1952). I-Tisham Ibn-Al-Kalbi, The Book of Idols or The Kitab al-Asnam. Princeton: Princeton UP. English translation.
  24. Gibb, H. A. R. and Kramers, J. H., eds. (1953). Shorter Encyclopedia of Islam. (Ithaca: Cornell University Press), p. 397.
  25. Jihad "Holy war", a Divine institution of warfare to extend Islam into the dar al-harb (the non-Islamic territories which are described as the "abode of struggle", or of disbelief) or to defend Islam from danger. Adult males must participate if the need arises, but not all of them, provided that "a sufficient number" (fard al-kifayah) take it up. Morey Robert A. (2002). Winning the war against radical Islam. Orange, CA: Christian Scholars Press, pp. 79-80.
  26. App. 400-800 were murdered. Arafat, W.N. "New Light on the Story of Banu Qurayza and the Jews of Medina," Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1976, pp. 100-107.
  27. On two occasions he married for the sake of sexual gratification only. Those victims were namely Safiyah and Juwairiyah. Wiki-Islam. "Rape in Islam." http://wikiislam.net/wiki/Rape_in_Islam Last Accessed: 05/15/2015.
  28. Muslims are supposed to beat women whose "ill-will" they "have reason to fear," and kill those who wage war against them, and hypocrites who are in open enmity against them, wherever they find them. They must also fight against and subjugate Jews and Christians. Muslims who pray the required five daily prayers curse Christians and Jews no less than 17 times. Every day. It was no surprise, then, in May when, Breitbart News reported that "family members of Navy SEALs who died on duty in Afghanistan claim that an Islamic cleric 'damned' the servicemen's bodies at their memorial ceremony." They were, after all, non-Muslims. That's Islamic supremacism. Breitbart.com. "What Islamic Supremacism Really Is."

    http://www.breitbart.com/national-security/2013/06/03/what-islamic-supremacism-really-is/ Last Accessed: 05/15/2015.

  29. Wiki. Fifth column. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fifth_column Last Accessed: 05/15/2015.
  30. Kouri, Jim. Muslim Fifth Column? CAIR exposed in undercover operation. http://www.examiner.com/article/muslim-fifth-column-cair-exposed-undercover-operation Last Accessed: 05/15/2015.

    The Council of American-Islamic Relations (CAIR) describes itself as a "non-profit, grassroots membership organization … established to promote a positive image of Islam and Muslims in America," to protect Muslims from hate crimes and discrimination, and to present "an Islamic perspective on issues of importance to the American public." However an investigation of its activities and publications (in Arabic) shows that CAIR supports Wahhabi Salafi ideology and are instrumental in the propagation of that cult throughout America and have been the root cause of radicalization of terrorists. It is reported that CAIR have been instrumental in Wahhabi Salafi cult infiltrating or controlling over half the mosques in America with the help of huge donations from Saudi Arabian sources and so-called charities in the US such as the Holy Land Foundation for Relief and Development (HLF) headquartered in Richardson, Texas with branch offices in New Jersey, California, and Illinois. The Freedom House yearlong investigation concluded in its 89 page report, "Saudi Publications on Hate Ideology Invade American Mosques." See Athos, Alexander. Fifth Column in the West.

    http://moderndiplomacy.eu/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=497:fifth-column-in-the-west&Itemid=487 Modern Diplomacy. Last Accessed: 05/15/2015.

  31. The pursuit of pleasure; sensual self-indulgence.
  32. Sura 33, The Parties (Al-Ahzab). http://www.masjidtucson.org/quran/noframes/ch33.html Last Accessed: 05/15/2015. Syra 66, Prohibition (Al-Tahreem). http://www.masjidtucson.org/quran/frames/ch66.html Last Accessed: 05/15/2015.
  33. Answering Muslims. "Was Muhammad a Pedophile?" http://www.answeringmuslims.com/2013/10/was-muhammad-pedophile.html Last Accessed: 05/15/2015.
  34. Natan, Yoel. "164 Jihad Verses in the Koran." Answering Islam. http://www.answering-islam.org/Quran/Themes/jihad_passages.html Last Accessed: 05/19/2015.
  35. A spiritual leader of Islam, claiming succession (somewhat similar to Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church) from Muhammad (sunni).
  36. Wars of Apostasy (632-633 A.D.).
  37. Umar was an early convert to Islam who had spent 17 years at Muhammad's side. During the Caliphate of Umar, Muslim armies conquered almost the entire Middle East, including the Levant, Egypt, and much of Persia, the rest of Persia was conquered under the reigns of the two subsequent Rashidun Caliphs (Uttman & Ali). See the Historical Atlas of the Mediterranean. See "The Rise of Islam" with maps http://explorethemed.com/RiseIslam.asp Last accessed 06/02/2015.
  38. The Battle of Tours (often called the Battle of Poitiers, but not to be confused with the Battle of Poitiers, 1356) was fought on October 10, 732 between forces under the Frankish leader Charles Martel and a massive invading Islamic army led by Emir Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi Abd al Rahman, near the city of Tours, France. During the battle, the Franks defeated the Islamic army and Emir Abd er Rahman was killed. This battle stopped the northward advance of Islam from the Iberian peninsula, and is considered by most historians to be of macrohistorical importance, in that it halted the Islamic conquests, and preserved Christianity as the controlling faith in Europe, during a period in which Islam was overrunning the remains of the old Roman and Persian Empires. See The Latin Library. "Battle of Tours (732 A.D.)." http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/imperialism/notes/tours.html Last Accessed: 05/15/2015.
  39. Surah 9:5.
  40. Muslims call Jews and Christians the "People of the Book."
  41. "Money paid by non-Muslims so that they can keep practicing their religion. Under Islamic law, if the money is not paid, the people are to be killed or enslaved." The Religion of Peace. "Extorting Money from Other Religions." http://www.thereligionofpeace.com/quran/004-jizya.htm Last Accessed: 05/15/2015.
  42. Surah 9:29.
  43. Arabization describes a growing cultural influence on a non-Arab area that gradually changes into one that speaks Arabic and/or incorporates Arab culture and Arab identity.
  44. Dhimmitude refers to a non-Muslim living a restricted life as a second-class subject of an Islamic state.
  45. Pact of Umar (also known as: Covenant of Umar, Treaty of Umar or The laws of Umar), is an apocryphal treaty between the Muslims and Christians of Syria that later gained a canonical status in Islamic jurisprudence. There are several versions of the pact, differing both in structure and stipulationsIt "sets a different laws set for the different non-Muslim residents (Christians, Zoroastrian, Jews, Samaritans and pagans), who were under the rule of the Caliphate." Wiki. "Pact of Umar" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pact_of_Umar Last Accessed: 05/15/2015.
  46. Such as they could not: (1) build any new monasteries, churches, (2) proclaim their religion publically, (3) not display crosses on the roads and marketplaces of Muslims, and (4) not hide, give sanctuary, or shelter any spy from Muslims, etc.
  47. Islam was the official religion of the Ottoman Empire and became more important after two seminal events: the conquest of Constantinople and the conquest of Arab regions of the Middle East. The highest position in Islam, caliphate, was claimed by the sultan, after the defeat of the Mamluks which was established as Ottoman Caliphate. The Sultan was to be a devout Muslim and was given the literal authority of the Caliph. Additionally, Sunni clerics had tremendous influence over government and their authority was central to the regulation of the economy. Despite all this, the Sultan also had a right to decree, enforcing a code called Kanun (law) in Turkish. Additionally, there was a supreme clerical position called the Sheykhulislam ("Sheykh of Islam" in Arabic). Minorities, particularly Christians and Jews but also some others, were mandated to pay the jizya, the poll tax as mandated by traditional Islam. Wiki. "Islam in the Ottoman Empire." Last Accessed: 05/15/2015.
  48. Nally, Joseph. "Images of Muhammad." IIIM. https://thirdmill.org/answers/answer.asp/file/43370 Last Accessed: 05/16/2015.
  49. Sir Winston Churchill, The River War, first edition, Vol. II, pages 248-50, London: Churchill saw it coming.
  50. Barton, J. L. (1918). The Christian Approach to Islam. Boston; Chicago: The Pilgrim Press, p. 9.
  51. Burke, Daniel. The world's fastest-growing religion is. CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2015/04/02/living/pew-study-religion/ Last accessed: 05/15/2015.
  52. IIM. "Prayer: Why Should We Pray?" https://thirdmill.org/studybible/note.asp/id/40938 Last Accessed: 05/19/2015.
  53. Calvin, John. (1995), Institutes III, title of Chapter 20. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.
  54. Some fasts involve a total abstinence of food (Luke 4:2; Acts 9:9; cf. Ezra 10:6; Est 4:16). Some do partial fasts (Dan 10:3). Some chose to fast other things other than food. Always consult a doctor before fasting. Read, Richard, Guy. "Fasting: Answering Common Questions." IIIM. "https://thirdmill.org/magazine/article.asp/link/http:^^thirdmill.org^articles^guy_richard^guy_richard.FastingAnsweringCommonQuestions.html/at/Fasting:%20Answering%20Common%20Questions Last Accessed: 05/19/2015.
  55. Paulinus says Ambrose fasted daily and recommended a sevenfold pattern of daily prayer. Satterlee, Craig A. (2002). Ambrose of Milan's Method of Mystagogical Preaching. Pueblo Books; 1st Ed. Edition, p. 81.
  56. Origen. (2005). Homilies on Leviticus, 1-16. (Fathers of the Church Patristic Series). Gary Wayne Barkley, Translator. The Catholic University of America Press.
  57. Homily 19: On St. Matthew: On the Lord's Prayer. See Simonetti, Manlio, Ed. (2001). Matthew 1-13 (Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture). IVP Academic; First Edition.
  58. I prefer the presuppositional apologetic method. See Frame, John. Presuppositional Apologetics: An Introduction Part 1 of 2: Introduction and Creation. https://thirdmill.org/magazine/article.asp/link/http:^^thirdmill.org^articles^joh_frame^PT.Frame.Presupp.Apol.1.html/at/Presuppositional%20Apologetics,%20part%201 Last Accessed: 05/16/2015 and Frame, John. Presuppositional Apologetics: An Introduction Part 2 of 2: Fall and Redemption; and Summary and Conclusion. https://thirdmill.org/magazine/article.asp/link/http:^^thirdmill.org^articles^joh_frame^PT.Frame.Presupp.Apol.2.html/at/Presuppositional%20Apologetics,%20part%202 Last Accessed: 05/16/2015.
  59. Muslims call Jews and Christians the "People of the Book."
  60. Reformed Theological Seminary, Apologetics class with Dr. John Frame.
  61. Frame, John. (1987).The Doctrine of the Knowledge of God: A Theology of Lordship. (P&R Publishing). pp. 81, 87.
  62. Nally, Joseph. "Christianity and Islam Contrasted." IIIM. https://thirdmill.org/answers/answer.asp/file/40449 Last Accessed: 05/16/2015.
  63. The crescent moon and star is an internationally-recognized symbol of Islam.
  64. The Christian Approach to Islam, p. 209.
  65. The first of the Crusades began in 1095, when armies of Christians from Western Europe responded to Pope Urban II's plea to go to war against Muslim forces in the Holy Land. History Channel. "Crusades." http://www.history.com/topics/crusades Last Accessed: 05/16/2015.
  66. Marsh, Charles. (1978). Share Your Faith with a Muslim. (Moody Press), p. 61.
  67. Garrison, David. (2014). A Wind in the House of Islam. Wigtake Resources LLC. Read Qureshi, Nabeel (2014). Seeking Allah, Finding Jesus. Zondervan.
  68. Wiki. "Back to Jerusalem movement." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Back_to_Jerusalem_movement Last Accessed: 05/16/2015.
  69. 30 Days of Prayer. http://www.30daysprayer.com Last Accessed: 05/16/2015.
  70. Some combine Crusades 7 and 8, making only 7 total.
  71. McLaughlin, Ra. "Violent Resistance." IIIM. https://thirdmill.org/answers/answer.asp/file/40173 Last Accessed: 05/16/2015 and "Christians and Civil Government: Should I Obey the Government?" IIIM. https://thirdmill.org/studybible/note.asp/id/40906 Last Accessed: 05/16/2015.
  72. Ibid.
  73. Frame, John. "Just War." IIIM. https://thirdmill.org/answers/answer.asp/file/40093 Last Accessed: 05/16/2015 and Nally, Joseph. "Is Assassination Ethical?" IIIM. https://thirdmill.org/answers/answer.asp/file/40590 Last Accessed: 05/16/2015.
  74. "But, say they, the wise man will wage just wars. As if he would not all the rather lament the necessity of just wars, if he remembers that he is a man; for if they were not just he would not wage them, and would therefore be delivered from all wars." Augustine of Hippo (2004). The City of God. Henry Bettenson, Translator. Penguin Classics; Reprint edition.
  75. Aquinas, Thomas. "Whether It Is Always Sinful to Wage War?" Today's Moral Issues. By Daniel Bonevac. Ed. Michael Ryan, et al. 6th ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2009. 380-81.
  76. Orend, Brian, "War", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.). http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/war/ Last Accessed 05/16/2015.
  77. McLaughlin, Ra. "Violent Resistance." IIIM. https://thirdmill.org/answers/answer.asp/file/40173 Last Accessed: 05/16/2015 and "Christians and Civil Government: Should I Obey the Government?" IIIM. https://thirdmill.org/studybible/note.asp/id/40906 Last Accessed: 05/16/2015.
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