Systematic Theology I (2ST510), Scripture and God

Fall Term, 2004

Course Handbook


John M. Frame


Tuesdays, 2-5 PM

Office Hours: Wednesdays, 8-11 AM, others by appointment. I'm in my office most mornings, and if my door is ajar I'll be happy to see you. For appointments at other times, contact my assistant, Jan Brubaker. Feel free to write me at


Texts and Abbreviations:


            CTR: Alister McGrath, Christian Theology Reader (Blackwell, 1995)

            CWM: Frame, Contemporary Worship Music (P&R, 1997)

            DG: Frame, Doctrine of God (P&R, 2002)

            GI: Norman Geisler, ed., Inerrancy (Zondervan, 1979)

            PWG: Frame, Perspectives on the Word of God (Wipf and Stock, 1999)

            RC: Reformed Confessions, any edition (available online for download at, or for reading at

SD: Supplementary Documents (available at Click on

"Hall of Frame," then scroll down. )

Frame, Doctrine of God (Lecture Outline) (DGLO)

Frame, Doctrine of God Study Guide (DGSG)

Frame, Doctrine of the Word of God (Lecture Outline) (DWGLO)

Frame, Doctrine of the Word of God Study Guide (DWGSG)

            Frame, "Introduction to the Reformed Faith"

            Warfield, "A Brief and Untechnical Statement of the Reformed Faith"

            Van Til, "Nature and Scripture"

                        John Murray, "The Attestation of Scripture"

                        Frame, "Covenant and the Unity of Scripture"

                        Frame, "Traditionalism"





            1. To give reasons for confidence in the absolute authority of Scripture as God's Word.


            2. To show that disbelief and disobedience to Scripture are inconsistent with faith in Jesus Christ.


            3. To present God as covenant Lord and ways of speaking about him consistent with his Lordship as revealed in Scripture.


            4. To elicit a greater love for our Triune God and his revelation.





1.      Class attendance is required. I won't always call the roll, but students who are often absent or late without excuse will be penalized.


2.      You are asked to complete all reading assignments on the day indicated below.


3.      Most of Part Two of the course, and perhaps some other parts, will be taught by directed discussion of assigned readings rather than by lecture. For those hours, you will be asked to recite on assigned material. Be prepared to answer Study Guide questions and define key terms; but I may also ask you questions that are not on the Study Guide, based on assigned reading and lecture material. I will evaluate your performance in class participation. You will not receive a formal grade, but students who do well will get additional credit, and those who are often absent or unprepared will be penalized. I will evaluate your answers as to accuracy, comprehension, and insight.


4.      Midterm Test on the Word of God unit (everything we have covered to that point). The test will be given in the library, and you may take it any time from the opening of the library on Monday, Oct. 25, to its closing on Saturday, Oct. 30. This exam will be worth 50% of your final grade, more or less (but see above, #3).


5.      Final Exam, only on the Doctrine of God unit (material covered since the midterm). This exam will be worth 50% of your final grade, more or less (but see above, #3). Time and place will be announced.




Weekly Assignments


Aug. 31: The Reformed Faith and the Study of Theology


            No reading assignments.


Sept. 7: The Word of God


            CTR, Karl Barth on the "Otherness" of God, 216-218. Not required for counseling students

(henceforth, NRCS).

            DG, 1-46, 80-115, 469-75

            DGSG questions on Chapters 1-3, 5-7, and those dealing with the Word of God in 22.

            DWG, 1-9.

            DWGSG, Lesson 1

            PWG, vii-viii, 1-16.

            SD:      Frame, "Introduction to the Reformed Faith"

                        Warfield, "A Brief and Untechnical Statement of the Reformed Faith"



Sept. 14: The Media of the Word



                        Martin Luther on Revelation in Christ, 96-98.

            John Calvin on the Natural Knowledge of God, 98-99.

            Thomas Torrance on Karl Barth's Natural Theology, 162-66.

            DWG, 9-14

            DWGSG, Lesson 2

            SD: Van Til, "Nature and Scripture"

            PWG, 19-24


                        Belgic Confession, Articles I-VII

                        Confession of 1967, I, C, 2

                        Canons of Dordt, Third and Fourth Heads, I-V

                        Heidelberg Catechism, Questions 1-3, 19, 21-23, 67

                        Second Helvetic Confession, I-II

Westminster Confession of Faith I, XIV

Westminster Larger Catechism, Questions 1-5

Westminster Shorter Catechism, Questions 1-3


Sept. 21: The Inspiration of Scripture



A.    A. Hodge on the Inspiration of Scripture, 127-130.

Rudolf Bultmann on Demythologization, 142-145.

James I. Packer on the Nature of Revelation, 160-62.

            DWG, 14-21.

            DWGSG, Lesson 3.

            GI, 3-22, 39-53, 151-193, 229-264, 276-287.

            PWG, 24-35.

            SD: John Murray, "The Attestation of Scripture"


Sept. 28: The Inerrancy of Scripture



                        Karl Rahner on the Authority of Scripture, 145-49.

            DWG, 21-35.

            DWGSG, Lesson 4.

            GI, 22-36, 57-113, 267-304.

            SD: Frame, "Covenant and the Unity of Scripture."


Oct. 5: Necessity, Clarity, and Sufficiency of Scripture


            CTR, (Scripture and Tradition)

                        Irenaeus, Clement, Hippolytus, Tertullian, Origen, Cyril, Augustine, 75-84.

            Vincent of Lerins, 86-87.

            Formula of Concord, 105-106.

            Johann Mohler, 121-124.

            Karl Rahner, 145-149 (review).

            CWM, 175-201.

            DWG, 35-41.

            DWGSG, Lesson 5.

            SD: Frame, "Traditionalism"




Oct. 19: God's Sovereignty, Human Responsibility, Evil


            CTR, God's Sovereignty, Human Responsibility, Evil.

            Irenaeus, 173-74.

            Origen, 179-80.

            Augustine, 192-93.

            DG, Chapters 4, 8, 9. For assignments in DG, you may find it helpful to consult

                        DGLO as well, which provides an outline of DG. We may occasionally use that

outline in class as well. Large Roman numerals in the outline correspond to chapter

numbers in the book.

            DGSG, Questions on the above chapters (similarly each week from now on).

            Second Helvetic Confession, 9.

            Westminster Confession of Faith, 3.1, 9.1-5.


Oct. 25-30: MIDTERM EXAM. Take the exam in the library, any time from its opening on Monday the 25th to its closing on Saturday the 30th. The exam will deal only with the Doctrine of the Word of God, that is the assignments made through Oct. 5.


Oct. 26: Philosophy of Lordship, Miracle and Providence


            DG, Chapters 10-14, with Study Guide questions.


                        Belgic Confession, 15.

                        Heidelberg Catechism, 27-28.

                        Second Helvetic Confession, 6.

                        Westminster Confession of Faith, 2, 5.

                        Westminster Larger Catechism, 18-19.

                        Westminster Shorter Catechism, 11.


Nov. 2: Creation and the Decrees



                        Tertullian, 175-77.

                        Origen, 177-80.

            DG and DGSG, Chapters 15-16.


                        BC 14, 16.

                        CD: First Head, Articles 1-18 and Rejection of Errors.

                        DG 15, 16.

                        HC 26.

                        SHC 7, 10.

                        WCF 3, 4.

                        WLC 12-17.

                        WSC 7-10.


Nov. 9: Names and Images of God; Moral Attributes



                        Juliana of Norwich, 207-209.

Jewett on Non-inclusive Language, 239-242.

Anne Carr, 242-244.

Anselm on God's Compassion, 202-203.

            DG and DGSG, 17-21.


                        Westminster Confession of Faith, 2.1-2 (review)

                        Westminster Larger Catechism 7 (")


Nov. 16: God's Knowledge and Power



                        Aquinas on Omnipotence, 206-207.

                        Ockham on the Two Powers of God, 209-210.

            DG and DGSG, Chapters 22-23.


Nov. 23: God, Time, and Space; God's Aseity


            DG and DGSG, Chapters 24-26.


            Origen on God's Suffering, Changelessness, 180-82.

            Alexander of Hales, 205-206.

            Spinoza, 213-14,

            Aquinas on Omnipotence, 206-207.

            Ockham on God's Power, 209-210.

            Moltmann on Divine Suffering, 218-22.

            Jüngel on Divine Suffering, 235-36.



Nov. 30: The Trinity


            DG and DGSG, Chapters 27-29.


            Irenaeus, 174-75.

            Gregory of Nazianzen, 184-85.

            Hilary of Poitiers, 185-87.

            Augustine, 187-92.

            Epiphanius on Sabellianism, 197-98.

            Cyril on the Spirit, 198-99.

            Thomas A Kempis on Speculation, 210-212.

            Schleiermacher, 214-216.

            Leonardo Boff, 226-228.

            Robert Jenson, 228-231.

            Paul Jewett, 239-242 (review).


Course Bibliographies


Introduction to the Reformed Faith


See also the Reformed systematic theologies listed under "Systematic Theology and Theological Method"


Bavinck, Herman, Our Reasonable Faith (Baker, 1956). Bavinck

            was the leading Dutch dogmatician of the late 19th, early

            20th centuries. This is his brief, 568 page (!) summary of his four-volume Dogmatics.

Boettner, Lorraine, The Reformed Doctrine of Predestination

            (P&R). A good, standard work.

Boice, James, Foundations of the Faith. A popular summary of

            Reformed doctrine.

Bratt, J., ed., The Heritage of John Calvin (1973). Essays on

            Calvin and his influence. Note comparisons between

            Calvin and Thomas Aquinas (Breen) and between Calvin

            and Arminius (Bangs).

Calvin, John, Concerning the Eternal Predestination of God

            ("Calvin's Calvinism." His argument against Pighius on predestination.)

--, Institutes of the Christian Religion. The

      definitive formulation. You must read this

       before leaving seminary.

Coppes, Leonard J., Are Five Points Enough? Ten Points

            of Calvinism (Manassas: Reformation Educational

            Foundation, 1980).

Elwell, Walter, ed., Handbook of Evangelical Theologians

            (Baker, 1993). Biographies and emphases of various

            thinkers, including Warfield, Berkhof, Machen, Van Til,

            Murray, Clark, Berkouwer, Schaeffer, Henry, Hoekema,

            Carnell, Packer, McGrath.

Hagopian, David G., ed., Back to Basics (P&R, 1996).

Hodge, A. A., Outlines of Theology (Zondervan, 1879, 1972). A

            one-volume work by the son of Charles Hodge.

Kline, Meredith, The Structure of Biblical Authority (Eerdmans,

            1972). Best source for the "covenant" concept expounded

            in lecture.

Klooster, Fred, Calvin's Doctrine of Predestination. (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1977).

Kuyper, A., Lectures on Calvinism (Eerdmans, 1961). Another

            "must read." Kuyper was a great genius: philosopher,

            founder of a university, newspaper editor, preacher,

            founder of a new denomination, devotional writer. These

            lectures seek to apply Calvinism to all areas of life,

            thus expressing the major thrust of his thought.

Luther, Martin, The Bondage of the Will (Luther had great affection for this

            volume, but his Lutheran successors didn't follow its teaching. Shows

how important the doctrine of predestination was to the early Reformation.)

Machen, J. Gresham, The Christian Faith in the Modern World.

            --, The Christian View of Man. These two books are simple

            radio addresses expounding the basics of the Reformed

            faith. Vivid, compelling style.

            --, Christianity and Liberalism. Still the best book

            in contrasting Reformed Christianity with its

            "liberal" counterfeit.

McKim, Donald K., ed., Encyclopedia of the Reformed Faith (Westminster/

            John Knox Press, 1992). Some contributors are liberal and/or

            limited inerrantist, but on the whole this is a valuable reference


Murray, J., Calvin on Scripture and the Sovereignty of God (Baker, 1960). These

            articles are also found in Vol. IV of Murray's Collected Writings (Banner

            of Truth, 1982).

Palmer, E., The Five Points of Calvinism (Baker, 1972). Accurate,


Pinnock, C., ed., The Grace of God and the Will of Man

            (Zondervan, 1989). Essays against Calvinism and

            in favor of Arminianism.

Schreiner, Thomas R., and Ware, Bruce A., The Grace of God and the

            Bondage of the Will (Baker, 1995). Articles on many issues in

            dispute between Calvinists and Arminians, taking the Calvinist

            side.High quality of thought and scholarship.

Steele, D., and Thomas, C., The Five Points of Calvinism (P&R, 1965).

             Not much argument here, but good summary statements, proof

            texts, historical surveys, analytical bibliographies.

Sproul, R. C., many popular books and tapes on Reformed doctrines,

            available through the Ligonier Valley Study Center in Orlando, Florida.

            Sproul is the best popular communicator of Reformed doctrine

            around. Ligonier also sells tapes and booklets by the late John

            H. Gerstner, Sproul's mentor. These should not be missed.

Van Til, Cornelius, Christian Apologetics, 1-22. Van Til's

            summary of the Reformed faith.

Warfield, B. B., Calvin and Calvinism.

            --, Calvin and Augustine.


Revelation and Scripture


            See also the various systematic theologies listed in the "Theology" bibliography below.


Archer, G., Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties (Grand Rapids,

            Zondervan, l982).

Baillie, John, The Idea of Revelation in Recent Thought

            (NY: Columbia Univ. Press, 1956). Handy summary of

            the views of Barth, Brunner, Bultmann, Cullmann,

            Tillich, and other liberal and neo-orthodox thinkers.

Barr, James, Fundamentalism. Critique of evangelical views

            of scripture.

Barth, Karl, Church Dogmatics, I/2, 457-740. Fountainhead of


Bavinck, Herman,

--, The Philosophy of Revelation (Grand Rapids:

            Baker, 1979).

Beegle, Dewey, Scripture, Tradition and Infallibility (1973).

            Limited inerrancy.

Berkhof, Louis, Introduction to Systematic Theology (Grand

            Rapids: Baker, 1979). Deals with theological method and

            the doctrine of revelation-Scripture.

Berkouwer, G. C., General Revelation (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans,


            --, Holy Scripture (Grand Rapids, Eerdmans, 1975).

            A sophisticated statement of a limited inerrancy


Bloesch, Donald, Holy Scripture (Downers Grove, Inter-Varsity

            Press, 1994). Limited inerrancy.

Boice, James M., ed., The Foundation of Biblical Authority

            (Zondervan, 1978).

Bruce, F. F., The Canon of Scripture (IVP, 1988)

Carson, D., and Woodbridge, J., ed., Scripture and Truth

            (Zondervan, 1983).

            --, Hermeneutics, Authority and Canon (Zondervan, 1986, 1995);

           includes essay by Frame on the internal testimony of the Spirit.

Clark, G., God's Hammer (Jefferson, Md., Trinity Publishing Co.,1982).

Conn, Harvie, ed., Inerrancy and Hermeneutic (Grand Rapids,

            Baker, 1988). A WTS-Phila. symposium.

Davis, S. T., The Debate About the Bible (Philadelphia, Westminster

            Press, 1977)-- limited inerrancy.

Demarest, B., General Revelation (Zondervan, 1982)-- Baptist from

            Denver Seminary.

Erickson, M., The Living God (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1973). A book

            of readings on various theological topics including this

            one. Articles by Calvin, Kantzer, Ramm, Warfield

            represent the historic protestant position. Barth and

            Hordern represent neo-orthodoxy. Orr and Beegle represent

            limited inerrancy. Dodd represents older liberalism.

Geisler, N., ed., Biblical Errancy (Zondervan, 1981). See Frame's

            review in Westminster Theological Journal XLV, 2 (Fall, 1983).

            The book deals with philosophers whose influence weakened

            confidence in biblical inerrancy.

            --, ed., Inerrancy (Zondervan, 1979)-- the papers of the first

            conference of the International Council on Biblical Inerrancy.

Hannah, J., ed., Inerrancy and the Church (Chicago, Moody Press,

            1984). Like the Boice and Geisler volumes, this book is a

            project of ICBI.

Helm, P., Divine Revelation: The Basic Issues (Westchester, Ill.,

            Crossway Books, 1982). Helm is a Christian philosopher at the

            King's College, Univ. of London, England, former editor

            of Banner of Truth.

            --, and Carl Trueman, eds, The Trustworthiness of God: Perspectives on the Nature of

Scripture (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2002).

Henry, Carl F. H., God, Revelation and Authority, 6 volumes

            (Waco, Word, 1976 to 1984). The first four volumes deal with

            the doctrine of revelation, the last two with the doctrine

            of God. This is a fine work, certainly the definitive

            evangelical treatment to date.

Kaiser, Walter, The Uses of the Old Testament in the New (Chicago,

            Moody, 1985). Did the N.T. writers misuse the O.T.? Kaiser's

            treatment is helpful.

Kistler, Don, ed., Sola Scriptura: the Protestant Position on the

            Bible (Morgan, PA: Soli Deo Gloria, 1995). Confessional

            protestants, including Robert Godfrey, R. C. Sproul,

            Sinclair Ferguson.

Kline, Meredith G., The Structure of Biblical Authority (Grand

            Rapids, Eerdmans, 1972). The most significant re-thinking

            of the orthodox position since Warfield.

Kuyper, Abraham, Principles of Sacred Theology (Eerdmans, 1965).

            Part of his Encyclopedia. Deals with the nature of

            theology and revelation. K. was a great Reformed leader

            of the 19th century.

Lewis, Gordon, and Demarest, Bruce, ed., Challenges to Inerrancy

            (Chicago, Moody, 1984). Another ICBI symposium, this one

            on theological attacks against inerrancy.

Lindsell, Harold, The Battle for the Bible (Grand Rapids,

            Zondervan, 1976). This states a "full inerrantist"

            position and attacks limited inerrancy. At points,

            however, it betrays a somewhat wooden hermeneutic. The

            limited inerrantists like to quote him as an extreme

            example of what they oppose.

Marshall, I. Howard, Biblical Inspiration (Grand Rapids,

            Eerdmans, 1982). "Mediating" evangelical treatment.

McKim, Donald, ed., The Authoritative Word (Grand Rapids:

            Eerdmans, 1983). Essays supporting limited inerrancy.

Montgomery, John W., ed., God's Inerrant Word (Bethany, 1975).

            Contains a number of useful articles by Packer,

            Montgomery, Pinnock, Peter Jones, R. C. Sproul,

            John Gerstner, and John Frame.

Morris, Leon, I Believe in Revelation (Eerdmans, 1976).

Murray, John, Calvin on Scripture and Divine Sovereignty

            (Grand Rapids, Baker, 1960).

Nash, Ronald, The Word of God and the Mind of Man (Zondervan, 1982).

            Full inerrancy.

Nicole, R., and Michaels, J. R., ed., Inerrancy and Common Sense

(Grand Rapids, Baker, 1980).

Orr, James, Revelation and Inspiration (Grand Rapids: Baker,

            1969, originally published in 1910.) Fountainhead of

            limited inerrancy views.

Packer, J. I., Beyond the Battle for the Bible (Westchester, Ill.,

            Cornerstone Books, 1980).

            --, Fundamentalism and the Word of God (Grand Rapids,

            Eerdmans, 1958). A classic exposition of the historic

            protestant view.

Pinnock, C., The Scripture Principle (N. Y., Harper, 1984).

Polman, A., Barth (Presbyterian and Reformed), 16-30. Pretty

            good summary and critique of Barth's view.

Radmacher, E., ed., Can We Trust the Bible? (Wheaton, Tyndale,

            1979). Interesting articles by Packer, Clowney, Sproul and


            --, and Preus, R., eds., Hermeneutics, Inerrancy and the Bible

            (Zondervan, 1984). Papers of the second ICBI conference, on


Ridderbos, H. N., The Authority of the New Testament Scriptures

            (Phila., Presbyterian and Reformed, 1963). Good

            historical and biblico-theological treatment of


--, Studies in Scripture and its Authority (Grand Rapids:

            Eerdmans, 1978). Generally supporting a limited inerrancy


Rogers, Jack, ed., Biblical Authority (Waco: Word Books, 1977).

            Articles defending limited inerrancy.

Rogers, J., and McKim, D., The Authority and Interpretation of the

            Bible (N.Y., Harper, 1979)-- the definitive statement of a

            "limited inerrancy" position.

Runia, Klaas, Karl Barth's Doctrine of Holy Scripture.

Rushdoony, R. J., Infallibility: An Inescapable Concept (Vallecito,

            Calif., Ross House Books, 1978).

Sproul, R. C., Explaining Inerrancy: a Commentary (Oakland, Calif.,

            ICBI, 1980). Commentary on the ICBI statement on inerrancy.

Stonehouse, Ned, and Woolley, Paul, ed., The Infallible Word

            (Phila: Presbyterian and Reformed, 1946). Collection of

            essays on Biblical inspiration and authority by the

            faculty of WTS/Phila. The contributions of Murray and

            Van Til are especially notable.

Trembath, Kern R., Evangelical Theories of Biblical Inspiration

            (NY: Oxford Univ. Press, 1987). Surveys various views.

            Favors Thomistic alternative.

Turretin, F., The Doctrine of Scripture (Grand Rapids, Baker, 1981)--

            part of Turretin's Institutes dealing with Scripture. Of course,

            the whole of the Institutes is also available now; see below under

            Systematic Theology and Theological Method.

Vander Stelt, J., Philosophy and Scripture (Marlton, N.J., Mack

            Publishing Co., 1978). Accuses old Princeton and Westminster

            (especially Van Til) of holding a rationalistic view of

            Scripture. I don't find it at all plausible.

Van Til, Cornelius, A Christian Theory of Knowledge (Phila.: P&R,

1969). Emphasizes the self-attestation of Scripture.

            --, Introduction to Systematic Theology (P&R,


            --, "Nature and Scripture," in Stonehouse and Woolley,

            ed., The Infallible Word.

            --, The Protestant Doctrine of Scripture.

Warfield, B. B., The Inspiration and Authority of the Bible

(P&R). Definitive.

--, Limited Inspiration (P&R).

Weeks, Noel, The Sufficiency of Scripture (Edinburgh, Banner of

            Truth, 1988). WTS graduate, teaches ancient history at

            Univ. of Sydney, Australia. Very stimulating.

Woodbridge, J., Biblical Authority (Zondervan, 1982)-- excellent

            critique of the Rogers-McKim volume.

Wolterstorff, Nicholas. Divine Discourse (NY: Cambridge University Press, 1997).

            Reflections by a Christian philosopher of Reformed background.


Systematic Theology and Theological Method


            In this bibliography, I have included both complete systems of theology and writings about theology and theological method. You will find that many of the systematic theologies begin with discussions of theology and theological method. They are, of course, also important for our study of the Doctrine of God.


Barth, Karl, Church Dogmatics (Macmillan). The fountainhead

            of neo-orthodoxy. Probably the most influential

            theology of the 20th century. See especially I/1,

            1-25, II/1, 1ff. on the nature and method of theology.

Bavinck, Herman, Reformed Dogmatics: Prolegomena (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2003). At last, Bavinck's four-volume Dogmatics is being translated into English. This is the first volume, dealing with theological method and Scripture.

Berkhof, Louis, Introduction to Systematic Theology (Grand

            Rapids: Baker, 1979). Deals with theological method and

            the doctrine of revelation-Scripture.

            --, Systematic Theology (Banner of Truth). Standard

            one-volume Reformed work. Good summary, based primarily

            on Hodge and on Herman Bavinck's four-volume Dutch work

            which is still untranslated into English.

Buswell, James O., Systematic Theology (Zondervan). Buswell was

            a professing Calvinist, though I believe he occasionally

            veered in an Arminian direction. Premillenial.

Calvin, John, Institutes of the Christian Religion. Wonderful

            book. Scriptural, devotional, powerful, practical.

            The seed-bed of all Reformed theology. Drink deep of it.

Chafer, Lewis Sperry, Systematic Theology (Dallas Theological

            Seminary Press). This seven volume work is the standard

            statement of "original dispensationalism."

Conn, Harvie, Contemporary World Theology (Phila.: P&R, 1973).

            A handy guidebook concerning some major theological

            schools of thought.

--, Eternal Word and Changing Worlds (Grand Rapids:

            Zondervan, 1984). Concerned with "contextualization:"

            the process of translating scripture into the thought-

            forms of various cultures.

Davis, John Jefferson, Foundations of Evangelical Theology

            (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1984).

Dooyeweerd, H., In the Twilight of Western Thought, 113-172.

            Dutch philosopher's critique of the method of classical

            Reformed theology. Somewhat confused in my opinion.

Elwell, Walter, ed., Evangelical Dictionary of Theology (Baker,

1984). Some useful articles here.

Erickson, Millard, Christian Theology (Baker). Middle of the

            road evangelicalism. Amyraldian.

--, ed. The Living God (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1975).

            See significant articles here on the nature and method

            of theology, particularly those by Hodge (Reformed),

            Mullins (Baptist emphasizing experience),

            De Wolf (liberal), Hordern (neo-orthodox), Van Til

            (Reformed), Tillich (radical liberal), Bultmann

            (radical liberal), and Gill (language analyst).

Ferguson, Sinclair, and Wright, David F., ed., New Dictionary

            of Theology (Downers Grove: IVP, 1988).

Frame, John, Cornelius Van Til: An Analysis of His Thought

            (Phillipsburg: P&R, 1995). Chapters 4-14 deal in

            various ways with Van Til's concept of theology.

            --, Doctrine of the Knowledge of God (Phila: P&R, 1987).

Gaffin, R., "Contemporary Hermeneutics, WTJ 31:2 (May, 1969),


            --, "Geerhardus Vos and the Interpretation of Paul," in

            Geehan, E. R., ed., Jerusalem and Athens (P&R, 1971).

            Gaffin argues that systematic theology should be controlled

            by, and reflect the structure of, biblical theology.

            --, "Systematic Theology and Biblical Theology,"

            in Skilton, ed., The New Testament Student and

            Theology, 32-50.

Grenz, Stanley, Theology for the Community of God (Nashville:

            Broadman and Holman, 1994). A big, fat book. Generally

            evangelical, but I confess I don't find it very


Grudem, Wayne, Systematic Theology (Grand Rapids: Zondervan,

            1994). Excellent in many ways; incorporates some of

            Frame's lecture material from Grudem's years as F's

            student. Reformed, but defends continuing charismatic


Hodge, Charles, Systematic Theology (Eerdmans). A three-volume

            work representing Old Princeton Presbyterian theology

            circa 1870. Still a standard work of Reformed theology.

Hoeksema, Herman, Reformed Dogmatics (Reformed Free Publishing

            Assn.) Often called a "hyper-Calvinist," Hoeksema

            denied the doctrine of common grace and left the

            Christian Reformed Church to form the Protestant Reformed

            Church. A very brilliant thinker.

Holmer, Paul, The Grammar of Faith (Harper, 1978).

            Wittgensteinian account of the nature of theology.

            See Frame's review in WTJ 42:1 (Fall, 1979), 219-231.

Horton, Michael S., Covenant and Eschatology (Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2002). Horton and I have some major differences, but I must admit that he has read a great many historic and contemporary theologians and has illuminated their contributions. The book is, however, essentially a "triangulation" (in terms of my "Traditionalism" paper).

Jewett, Paul K., God, Creation, and Revelation: a Neo-

            Evangelical Theology (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1991).

            "Neo-evangelical" these days tends to mean limited

            inerrancy and feminism, both of which Jewett endorses.

Kelsey, David, The Uses of Scripture in Recent Theology. See

            also Frame's review in WTJ 39:2 (Spring, 1977): 328-353.

            Explores the methods of modern theologians from Warfield

            to Bultmann; shows that they mean very different things

            when they claim to do theology "in accord with


Kuyper, Abraham, Principles of Sacred Theology (Eerdmans, 1965).

            Part of his Encyclopedia. Deals with the nature of

            theology and revelation. See especially 228-340, 565-636.

Lewis, Gordon, and Demarest, B., Integrative Theology

            (Zondervan), 3 vols. Baptist writers trying to combine

            historical, exegetical, biblical, and systematic

            theology. I don't think it's very successful. That

            project requires many more pages and more careful


Lindbeck, George, The Nature of Doctrine (Phila.: Westminster

            Press, 1984). An influential book on theological method.

            See Frame, DKG, pp. 380-81. It has recently been cited

            as the original document of "postliberalism."

McGrath, Alister, Christian Theology, An Introduction (Cambridge:

            Blackwell, 1996).

McKim, Donald, Encyclopedia of the Reformed Faith (Westminster/

            John Knox Press, 1992). A broad range of theological

            positions are represented here.

Moltmann, Jurgen, The Theology of Hope (NY: Harper, 1965). Well-

            known contemporary liberal theologian argues that

            theology must stress hope for the future. But for him

            the future is always "open."

Mueller, J. Theodore, Christian Dogmatics (Concordia). A standard

            one-volume conservative Lutheran theology.

Murray, John, Collected Writings (4 Volumes) (Banner of Truth).

            Murray taught for many years at Westminster in

            Philadelphia. His formulations of Reformed theology are,

            altogether, the best available. The exegesis is thorough

            and cogent. Volume 2 of this set contains his basic

            seminary lectures in Systematic Theology. See also his

            articles on "Systematic Theology." Murray was conservative

            in many ways, noticeably in his advocacy of the exclusive

            use of Psalms in worship. But his lectures were not,

            for the most part, reviews of Reformed traditions, but

            almost entirely exegetical. And in his accounts of theological

            method, he emphasizes independence from tradition.

Muller, Richard, Post-Reformation Reformed Dogmatics. Multi-

            volume survey of post-Reformation theologians on the

            topics of systematic theology.

--, The Study of Theology (Grand Rapids: Zondervan,

            1991). A discussion of theological method by a professor

            at Calvin Seminary. See my review in WTJ 56 (1994),

            133-151, and Muller's reply to me in the following issue.

            I am unmoved.

Pannenberg, Wolfhart, Systematic Theology (Grand Rapids:

            Eerdmans, 1988), 3 volumes. Pannenberg's theology is

            not orthodox, despite some appearances to the contrary.

            He is deeply influenced by Hegelian rationalism. But the

            intellectual quality of his work, including the very fine

            distinctions he regularly draws, is quite remarkable.

Pieper, Francis, Christian Dogmatics (Concordia). A three volume

            orthodox Lutheran theology. Mueller (above) summarizes


Poythress, Vern, Symphonic Theology: The Validity of Multiple

            Perspectives in Theology (Zondervan, 1987). My

            theological soul-mate.

Rushdoony, R. J., Systematic Theology (Ross House, 1994). A two-

            volume Reformed work. Rushdoony is the founder of the

            Christian Reconstruction or Theonomy movement, and his

            political and social interests are evident here. It is

            not an exegetically developed exposition of Reformed

            theology; it is rather a series of the author's thoughts

            relating various doctrines to his concerns. Nevertheless

            it is a book of some interest.

Shedd, W. G. T., Dogmatic Theology. Another 19th century classic

            of American Presbyterianism. Somewhat a priorist in


Spkyman, Gordon, Reformational Theology (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans,

            1992). Applies the approach of Dooyeweerdian philosophy

            to the work of dogmatics. Not terribly helpful, in my


Strong, W. H., Systematic Theology (Revell). A standard text of

            Baptist theology from the 19th century.

Thielicke, Helmut, The Evangelical Faith (Eerdmans). A

            three-volume Lutheran theology from the mid-20th century.

            Somewhat influenced by neo-orthodoxy, but often quite


            --, A Little Exercise for Young Theologians. It's

            important to read this before you get very far along

            in your theological study.

Tillich, Paul, Systematic Theology, 3 vols. Radically liberal,

            hardly affirms anything that can be recognized as

            Christian. A philosophy of being and non-being with

            some Christian language attached.

Turretin, F., Institutes of Elenctic Theology (Phillipsburg:

            Presbyterian and Reformed, 1994). Edited by

            James Dennison. Three volumes. This 17th century work

            was the basic textbook at Princeton Seminary before

            the completion of Hodge's systematics. A brilliant

            and comprehensive work.

Van Til, Cornelius, Introduction to Systematic Theology (P&R,

            1973). Van Til's thoughts on the nature and method

            of theology, revelation, scripture, and the doctrine of


Vos, Geerhardus, Biblical Theology. On pp. 1-27, he discusses

            the relation of biblical theology to the other

            theological disciplines.

Warfield, B. B., "The Idea of Systematic Theology," in his

            Studies in Theology (P&R).

Weber, Otto, Foundations of Dogmatics (Eerdmans). Neo-orthodox.

Wiley, H. Orton, Christian Theology (Beacon Hill Press).

            Standard Arminian work.

Woodbridge, John, and McComiskey, Thomas, ed., Doing Theology

            in Today's World (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1991). Some

            interesting essays on the nature and method of theology

            by evangelical and neo-evangelical writers.



Doctrine of God (General)


Alston, William P., ed., Divine Nature and Human Language

            (Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press, 1989). 279. p. Philosophical.

Anderson, R. S., Historical Transcendence and the Reality of God, 1975.

Barth, Karl, Church Dogmatics II/1, 2.

            --, The Humanity of God (Atlanta: John Knox, 1960,

            1976). 3.45. 96. p.

Bavinck, Herman, The Doctrine of God (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1951,

            77). 5.95. 407. p.

Beaty, Michael D., ed., Christian Theism and the Problems of

            Philosophy (Notre Dame: UND Press, 1990). 380. p.

Boice, James M., Our Sovereign God.

Boyd, Gregory A., God of the Possible (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2000). Open theist.

Bray, Gerald, The Doctrine of God (Downers Grove: IVP, 1993).

            281. p. Evangelical. Stimulating.

Brunner, Emil, The Christian Doctrine of God, I. Neo-orthodox.

Charnock, Stephen, The Existence and Attributes of God

            (Sovereign Grace Book Club, no pub. data.) 802. h. Classic

            Reformed work.

Cottrell, Jack, What the Bible Says About God the Creator

            (Joplin, MO: College Press, 1983). 518. h.

            ‑‑, What the Bible Says About God the Redeemer

            (Joplin: College Press, 1987). 598. h.

            ‑‑, What the Bible Says About God the Ruler

            (Joplin: College Press, 1984). 465. h.

            Cottrell is a Westminster/Phila. Graduate and theologian in the

            Church of Christ. He is, I think, the most cogent theologian

            today writing in the tradition of classical Arminianism.

Craig, William L., The Only Wise God (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1987).

            7.95. 157. p. Craig is mainly known as a philosopher and

            evidential apologist. This volume deals with a number

            of questions concerning the doctrine of God.

Davis, Stephen T., Logic and the Nature of God (Grand Rapids:

            Eerdmans, 1983). 171. h. Another philosophical

            treatment. Davis is a "limited inerrancy" evangelical.

Farley, E., The Transcendence of God

Feinberg, John, No One Like Him: The Doctrine of God (Crossway, 2001).

Fortman, Edmund J., The Triune God (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1972).

            10.95. 382. p. Historical.

France, R. T., The Living God (Downers Grove: IVP, 1970). 1.50.

            128. p. Evangelical.

Freddoso, Alfred J., ed., The Existence and Nature of God

            (Notre Dame: UND Press, 1983). 190. p. Philosophical.

Gilson, E., God and Philosophy (Thomist).

Grant, Robert M., The Early Christian Doctrine of God (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1966). 3.50. 141. H. Historical and comparative religions approach.

            --, Gods and the One God (Phila: Westminster

            Press, 1986). 211. p.

Hasker, William, God, Time, and Knowledge (Ithaca: Cornell UP,

            1989). 209. h. Open theist philosopher.

Heim, Karl, God Transcendent. Neo-orthodox.

Henry, Carl F. H., God, Revelation and Authority V (Waco:

            Word, 1982). 19.95. 443. h.

            ‑‑, God, Revelation and Authority VI (Waco: Word,

            1983). 19.95. 566. h. Evangelical. Volumes I-IV deal with

            the doctrine of Scripture. V-VI deal with the doctrine of God.


Jungel, Eberhard, God as the Mystery of the World (Grand Rapids:

            Eerdmans, 1983). 414. h. Indebted to Barth.

            --, God's Being is in Becoming.

Kaiser, Christopher, The Doctrine of God (Westchester: Crossway,

            1982). 4.99. 152. p. Evangelical.

Kaufman, Gordon D. The Theological Imagination (Philadelphia:

            Westminster Press, 1981). 309. p. Argues that the concept of God

            is an imaginative construct.

Kenny, Anthony, The God of the Philosophers (Oxford: Clarendon

            Press, 1979). 135. p.

Knox, D. Broughton, The Everlasting God (Welwyn: Evangelical

            Press, 1982). 4.87. 128. p. Evangelical.

Lightner, Robert P., The God of the Bible (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1973).3.95. 160. P.


Machen, J. Gresham, Christianity and Liberalism, 54-68.

            --, God Transcendent, 17-35.

            --, The Christian Faith in the Modern World, 103-201.

            --, The Christian View of Man, 13-113.

            --, What is Faith? 46-83.

Morris, Thomas V., The Concept of God (Oxford: OUP, 1987).

            276. p.

            ‑‑, ed., Divine and Human Action (Ithaca:

            Cornell UP, 1988). 361. p.

            ‑‑, Our Idea of God (Notre Dame: UND Press,

            1991). 192. h. Philosophical issues.

Nash, Ronald H., The Concept of God (Grand Rapids: Zondervan,

            1983). 127. p.

Oden, Thomas C., The Living God (San Francisco: Harper, 1987).

            29.95. 430. h. Former liberal, now evangelical, somewhat traditionalist.

Ogden, Schubert, The Reality of God (Bultmannian, Process).

Orr, James, The Christian View of God and the World. Apologetic.

Ott, Heinrich, God (Atlanta: John Knox, 1974). 3.95. 124. p. Post-Barthian.

Packer, James I., Knowing God (Downers Grove: IVP, 1973). 5.95. 295. H. With Study Guide

            (1975). 47. P. Classic evangelical work.

Pannenberg, Wolfhart, Metaphysics and the Idea of God (Grand Rapids:

            Eerdmans, 1990). 170. h. Important German theologian with Hegelian bent.

            Many American evangelicals follow his lead.

Pink, Arthur W., The Attributes of God (Swengel, PA: Reiner, 1970). 83. P. Standard

            Reformed treatment.

Pinnock, Clark, et al., The Openness of God (Downers Grove: IVP, 1994). "Open Theism."

Pratney, W. A., The Nature and Character of God (Minneapolis:

            Bethany House, 1988). 462. p. "Winkie" Pratney is an

            advocate of "moral government" theology, similar to

            open theism.

Sanders, John, The God Who Risks (Downers Grove: IVP, 1998). Open theist.

Smith, Ronald Gregor, The Doctrine of God (Phila.: Westminster

            Press, 1970). 5.00. 192. h. Neo-orthodox.

Sontag, Frederick, and Bryant, M. Darrol, eds., God: The

            Contemporary Discussion (NY: Rose of Sharon Press,

            1982). 419. p. Modern views, seeking a consensus among

            world religions. See Frame's review in WTJ

            46:1 (Spring, 1984), 198-205.

Storms, C. Samuel, The Grandeur of God (Grand Rapids: Baker,

            1984). 6.95. 180. p. Calvinist.

Swinburne, Richard, The Christian God (Oxford: Clarendon

            Press, 1994). 261. p. Distinguished philosopher of religion.

            ‑‑, The Coherence of Theism (Oxford: Clarendon

            Press, 1977). 302. p.

Tillich, Paul, The Courage to Be (note 155-190 on "The God Above God").

            --, Systematic Theology, I. Very liberal.

Warfield, B. B., "Calvin's Doctrine of God," in Calvin and Augustine, 133-185.

            --, "God," in Selected Shorter Writings I, 69-74.

            --, "Godhead," Ibid., 75-81.

Wierenga, Edward R., The Nature of God (Ithaca: Cornell UP,

            1989). 239. h.


Open Theism




Boer, Harry, An Ember Still Glowing (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1990).

Boyd, Gregory, God of the Possible (Grand Rapids, Baker, 2000).

            --, Letters From a Skeptic (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1994).

            --, Trinity and Process (NY: Peter Lang, 1996).

Fretheim, Terence, The Suffering of God (Phila.: Fortress, 1984).

Hasker, William, God, Time and Knowledge (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1989).

Johnson, Elizabeth, She Who Is (NY: Crossroad, 1992).

LaCugna, Catherine, God For Us (NY: Crossroad, 1992).

McCabe, L. D., Divine Nescience of Future Contingencies a Necessity (NY: Phillips and Hunt, 1882).

            --, The Foreknowledge of God (Cincinnati: Cranston and Stowe, 1887).

Olson, Gordon, The Foreknowledge of God (Arlington Heights, IL: Bible Research Corporation, 1941).

            --, The Omniscience of the Godhead (Arlington Heights, IL: Bible Research Corporation, 1972).

Pinnock, Clark, "Between Classical and Process Theism," in Ronald Nash, ed., Process Theology (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1987).

            --, "God Limits His Knowledge," in David and Randall Basinger, Predestination and Free Will (Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity Press, 1986).

            --, Most Moved Mover: A Theology of God's Openness (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2001).

--et al., The Openness of God (Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity Press, 1994).  ("OG," below.)

Rice, Richard, God's Foreknowledge and Man's Free Will (Minneapolis: Bethany House, 1985).

Sanders, John, "God as Personal," in Clark Pinnock, ed., The Grace of God and the Will of Man (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1989).

--, The God Who Risks (Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity Press, 1998).

--, and Christopher Hall, Does God Have a Future?  (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2003).

Wolterstorff, Nicholas, "God Everlasting," in Clifton Orlebeke and Lewis Smedes, God and the Good (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1975), 181-203. On God's relation to time.




Caneday, A. B., "Putting God at Risk: A Critique of John Sanders's View of Providence," Trinity Journal 20NS (1999), 131-163.

Erickson, Millard, God the Father Almighty (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1998).

Fackre, Gabriel, "An Evangelical Megashift? The Promise and Peril of an ‘Open' View of God," Christian Century (May 3, 1995), 484-487.

Frame, John M., Doctrine of God (Phillipsburg: P&R Publishers, 2002).

            --, No Other God (Phillipsburg: P&R Publishers, 2001).

Helm, Paul, Eternal God (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988). Defends philosophically the timeless eternity of God.

            --, God and Spacelessness," Philosophy 55 (March, 1980), 211-221.

            --, The Providence of God (Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1993). Defends a "no-risk" view of providence.

Mohler, R. Albert, "Does God Give Bad Advice?" World 15.24 (June 1, 2000), 23.

Nicole, Roger, "A Review Article: God of the Possible?" response to Gregory A. Boyd, God of the Possible in Reformation and Revival 10:1 (Winter, 2001), 167-194.

Piper, John, et al., eds., Beyond the Bounds: Open Theism and the Undermining of Biblical Christianity (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2003).

Schreiner, Thomas R., and Ware, Bruce A., The Grace of God, The Bondage of

the Will (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1995). Calvinistic views of divine

sovereignty and man's bondage under sin. Some references to open

theists, but mostly positive expositions of Reformed perspectives.

Strimple, Robert B., "What Does God Know?" in John H. Armstrong, ed., The Coming Evangelical Crisis (Chicago: Moody Press, 1996).

Veith, Gene, "The Opening of the American God," World 15.24 (June 1, 2000), 25-26.

Ware, Bruce, God's Lesser Glory: The Diminished God of Open Theism (Wheaton: Crossway Books, 2000).

Williams, Stephen N., "What God Doesn't Know: Were the Biblical Prophecies Mere Probabilities?" Review of Sanders, The God Who Risks in Books and Culture (Nov.-Dec., 1999), 16-18.

Wilson, Douglas, Knowledge, Foreknowledge, and the Gospel (Moscow, ID:

            Canon Press, 1997).

--, et al., forthcoming volume of essays critical of Open Theism (Moscow, ID: Canon Press).

Wright, R. K. McGregor, No Place For Sovereignty: What's Wrong With Freewill Theism (Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity Press, 1996).


See also Reformed Confessions and Systematic Theologies under subjects of divine attributes (especially knowledge, eternity, unchangeability), God's decrees, providence, election, effectual calling, regeneration.



The Problem of Evil


Adams, Jay, The Grand Demonstration: A Biblical Study of the

            So-called Problem of Evil (Santa Barbara: EastGate,

            1991). I offered some criticisms of this in AGG,

            which Adams answered in an Appendix. Actually,

            I think this is one of the better books on the subject.

Adams, Marilyn McCord, and Adams, Robert M., ed., The Problem of

            Evil (Oxford: OUP, 1990).

Feinberg, John, Theologies and Evil (Lanham: Univ. Press

            of America, 1979).

Frame, John M., Apologetics to the Glory of God (P&R, 1994).

Gamwell, Franklin I., The Divine Good (San Francisco: Harper,

            1990). 30.00. 223. h.

Geisler, Norman, The Roots of Evil (Zondervan, 1978).

Gerstner, John, The Problem of Pleasure (P&R, 1983). Building

            on the Reformed doctrine of the Fall, Gerstner argues

            that the real problem is this: Why should God allow

            fallen sinners to have any pleasure at all?

Griffin, David Ray, Evil Revisited (Albany: SUNY Press, 1991).

            A process philosopher, Griffin reasons that God is

            blameless because he is not sovereign. See Frame's

            review in Calvin Theological Journal 27:2 (Nov., 1992),


Hick, John, Evil and the God of Love. Advocates Irenaean

            "soul-making" theodicy.

Hopkins, Hugh Evan, The Mystery of Suffering (Chicago: IVP,

1959). Evangelical.

Lewis, C. S., The Problem of Pain (Macmillan, 1957). Classic;

            excellently written.

Mavrodes, George, Belief in God (NY: Random House, 1970).

Peterson, Michael, ed., The Problem of Evil: Selected Readings

            (Notre Dame: UND Press, 1992). Classic selections by

            ancient and modern writers.

Tada, Joni Eareckson, and Estes, Steven, When God Weeps (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1997). 19.99. 254. H.

Wenham, John, The Enigma of Evil (Zondervan, 1985). Evangelical.

Whitney, Barry L., What Are They Saying About God and Evil?

            (NY: Paulist Press, 1989). 5.95. 134. p.






Brown, Colin, Miracles and the Critical Mind (Grand Rapids:

            Eerdmans, 1984). 12.50. 383. h.  See Frame's review

            in WTJ 47:1 (Spring, 1985), 140-146.

            ‑‑, That You May Believe: Miracles and Faith Then

            and Now (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1985). 232. p.
Calvin, Institutes I (LCC), 200ff, 207ff, on "natural law."

Cooke, Ronald, Do Miracles Then Continue? (Hollidaysburg,

            PA: Manahath Press, 1981). 100. p.

Diemer, J. H., Miracles Happen: Toward a Biblical View of Nature

            (Toronto: AACS, nd.) 27. p.

            ‑‑, Nature and Miracle (Toronto:

            UP, 1991). 247. h. Dutch Reformed thinker influenced by

            Dooyeweerd. Uses broad definition of miracle.

Geisler, Norman, Miracles and Modern Thought (Grand Rapids:

            Zondervan, 1982). 168. p. Apologetic work.

Hodge, Casper W., "What is a Miracle?" Princeton Theological Review 14 (April, 1916).

Hooykaas, R., Natural Law and Divine Miracle.

Keller, E., and Keller, M., Miracles in Dispute (1969) Interesting treatment of liberal Protestant views.

Kuyper, Abraham, Principles of Sacred Theology, 413-28, 481-504.

            --, You Can Do Greater Things Than Christ

            (Jos, Nigeria: Institute of Church and Society,

            1991). 108. p.

Lewis, C. S., Miracles (NY: Macmillan, 1947). 220. h. Many

            useful observations.

McDonald, George, The Miracles of Our Lord (Wheaton: Harold

            Shaw, 1980). 4.95. 166. p. Expositions.

Moule, C. F. D., Miracles (1965).

Nowell-Smith, Patrick, "Miracles," in A. Flew and A. Macintyre, New Essays in Philosophical Theology. Elaborates on Hume's argument.

Swinburne, Richard, The Concept of Miracle (London: Macmillan,

            1970). 65p. 76. p. Philosophical treatment.

Tennant, F. R., Miracle and its Philosophical Presuppositions.

Vos, G., Biblical Theology, 250f.

Warfield, B. B., Miracles Yesterday and Today, Real and

            Counterfeit (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1918, 1965). Classic

            argument for cessationism

            --, "The Question of Miracles," in Selected Shorter Writings II, 167-204. .




Berkouwer, G. C., The Providence of God (Grand Rapids:

            Eerdmans, 1952). 3.50. 280. h.

Farley, Benjamin Wirt, The Providence of God (Grand Rapids:

            Baker, 1988). 257. h. Tries to be orthodox, but somewhat

            under the influence of Barth. See Frame's review, in WTJ 51

            (1989), 397-400.

Flavel, John, The Mystery of Providence (London: Banner of Truth,

            1963). 4/6. 221. p. Classic Puritan work.

Helm, Paul, The Providence of God (Leicester: IVP, 1993).

            246. p. Reformed philosopher writes a helpful treatment.

            Reviewed by Frame in WTJ 56:2 (Fall, 1994), 438-442.

Sanders, John, The God Who Risks (IVP, 1999). "Open Theism."

Spurgeon, Charles, Spurgeon on the Providence of God

            (Macdill AFB, Florida: Tyndale Bible Society, nd.)

            105. p.

Warfield, B. B., "God's Providence Over All," Selected Shorter Writings I, 111-115.




            I will deal with Scripture/science issues such as the creation days and evolution very sketchily in this course. Our main emphasis will be on the biblical theology of creation. 


Gilkey, Langdon, Maker of Heaven and Earth (Garden City:

            Doubleday, 1959). 311. h. Gilkey was personally a fairly

            radical theologian, but this book mainly intends to present

            the biblical data, and most of it is well done.

Houston, James M., I Believe in the Creator (Grand Rapids:

            Eerdmans, 1980). 4.95. 287. p. Evangelical.

Moltmann, Jurgen, God in Creation (San Francisco: Harper,

            1985). 365. p. Large work by German liberal.

Murray, John, "Calvin's Doctrine of Creation," Westminster Theological Journal 17 (1954-55), 21-42.

Young, Edward J., "Did God Create Out of Nothing?" Torch and Trumpet, 1952.



The Divine Decrees, Divine Sovereignty and Human Freedom



Anglin, W. S., Free Will and the Christian Faith (Oxford:

            Clarendon Press, 1990). 218. h.

Armstrong, Brian G., Calvinism and the Amyraut Heresy

            (Madison, Univ. of Wisconsin Press, 1969). 12.50.

            330. h. Reviewed by Frame in WTJ 34:2 (May, 1972),


Baker, Alvin L., Berkouwer's Doctrine of Election

            (Phillipsburg: P&R, 1981). 5.95. 204. p.

Basinger, David, The Case for Freewill Theism.

            --, and Basinger, Randall, ed., Predestination

            and Free Will (Downers Grove: IVP, 1986). 6.95. 179.


Berkouwer, G. C., Divine Election (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans,

            1960). 4.50. 336. h. Tries to shave the rough edges off

            of the Reformed doctrine. Not successful in my judgment.

Boettner, Loraine, The Reformed Doctrine of Predestination

            (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1957). 2.25. 432. h. Classic treatment.

Bonar, Horatius, God's Will, Man's Will, and Free Will

            (Wilmington: National Foundation for Christian

            Education, n.d.) 12. p. Nineteenth Century Reformed writer.

Calvin, John, Concerning the Eternal Predestination of God

            (London: Clarke, 1961). 191. h. Sometimes called "Calvin's

            Calvinism." His strongest writing on the subject.

            --, Institutes, III.

Campbell, C. A., In Defence of Free Will (London: George

            Allen and Unwin, 1957). 275. h. Philosophical.

Carson, Donald A., ed., Divine Sovereignty and Human

            Responsibility (Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1981).

            9.79. 271. p. Reformed, generally well-balanced.

Clark, Gordon H., Biblical Predestination (Nutley: P&R,

            1969). 150. p. Reformed philosopher, Van Til's nemesis, but

            often cogent.

            ‑‑, Predestination in the Old Testament

            (Phillipsburg: P&R, 1978). 1.50. 43. p.

Coles, Elisha, God's Sovereignty (Marshallton, DE:

            National Foundation for Christian Education,

            1968). 308. p. Reformed.

Custance, Arthur C., The Sovereignty of Grace (Phillipsburg:

            P&R, 1979). 12.95. 398. h. Original; not always cogent.

Edwards, Jonathan, Freedom of the Will (New Haven: Yale UP,

            1957). 15.00. 494. h. Classic, unsurpassed.

Gerstner, John, A Predestination Primer

            --, A Primer on Free Will (Phillipsburg:

            P&R, 1982). 1.50. p.

Hook, Sidney, ed., Determinism and Freedom (NY: NYU Press, 1958).

            237. h. Discussions of philosophical determinism. Some helpful

            arguments against libertarian freedom.

Hughes, Philip E., But For the Grace of God (Phila:

            Westminster Press, 1964). 1.25. 94. p. Reformed.

Jewett, Paul K., Election and Predestination (Grand Rapids:

            Eerdmans, 1985). 6.09. 147. p.

Klein, William W., The New Chosen People: A Corporate View

            of Election (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1990). 314. p. Tries to

            avoid individual election to salvation.

Klooster, Fred H., Calvin's Doctrine of Predestination (Grand

            Rapids: Baker, 1977). Reformed.

Luther, Martin, The Bondage of the Will (London: James Clarke,

            1957). 15s. 323. h. Classic work.

Murray, John, Calvin on Scripture and Divine Sovereignty, 55-71.

            --, "The Sovereignty of God," pamphlet.

            --, and Stonehouse, Ned, The Free Offer of the

            Gospel (Phillipsburg: Grotenhuis, nd.) 27. p. Defends the concept,

            over against hyper-Calvinism. Also in Murray's Complete Works.

Ness, Christopher, An Antidote to Arminianism (Millersville,

            PA: Classic a Month Club, 1964). 1.25. 90. p.

Packer, James I., Evangelism and the Sovereignty of God

            (Chicago: IVP, 1961). 126. p. Classic work. Still valuable.

            ‑‑, The Plan of God (London: Evangelical Press,

            nd.) 19. p.

Pannenberg, Wolfhart, The Idea of God and Human Freedom

            (Phila: Westminster Press, 1973). 6.95. 213. h.

Pink, Arthur, The Sovereignty of God (Grand Rapids: Baker,

            1930, 1969). 3.95. 320. h.  Reformed.

Pinnock, Clark H., ed., Grace Unlimited (Minneapolis:

            Bethany Fellowship, 1975). 4.95. 264. p. Arminian.

            ‑‑, ed., The Grace of God and the Will of Man

            (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1989). 318. p.

            ‑‑, et al., The Openness of God (Downers Grove:

            IVP, 1994). 202. h. "Open" theism, or "freewill" theism.

            ‑‑, and Brow, Robert C., Unbounded Love (Downers

            Grove: IVP, 1994).

Schreiner, Thomas, and Ware, Bruce, ed., The Grace of God

            and the Bondage of the Will, 2 vols. (Grand Rapids: Baker,

            1995). Reformed authors defend predestination in the

            context of recent debates over "open theism" and such.

            The focus is biblical and exegetical. Well done.

Shepherd, Norman, "Election as Gospel," WTJ 36:3 (Spring, 1974), 305-333.

Sproul, R. C., Chosen By God (Wheaton: Tyndale, 1989).

            11.95. 213. h. Good popular treatment.

Spurgeon, Charles H., Spurgeon on Sovereignty (Macdill AFB, Florida:

            Tyndale Bible Society, nd.) 110. p.

Van Til, Cornelius, The Sovereignty Of Grace (NP: P&R, 1969).

            110. p.

Von Wright, Georg Henrik, Causality and Determinism (NY:

            Columbia UP, 1974). 143. h.  Philosophical discussion.

Warfield, B. B., The Plan of Salvation (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, nd).

            1.50. 112. h. His classic work on the order of the divine decrees.

            "Predestination," in Biblical and Theological Studies, 270-333.

            "The Significance of the Confessional Doctrine of the Decree," in Selected Shorter Writings I, 93-102.

            "Some Thoughts on predestination," Ibid., 103-109.

Wright, R. K. McGregor, No Place For Sovereignty (Downers Grove: IVP, 1996).

            Critique of "open theism."

Zanchius, Jerome, Absolute Predestination (Marshallton, DE:

            National Foundation for Christian Education, nd.) 1.95.

            126. p. Classic Reformed work.

Zens, Jon, Election: a Present Truth For the Church (Nashville:

            Baptist Reformation Review, 1976). 13. p.


God's Names and Images


            Here, of course, the theological dictionaries are useful. A few noteworthy titles.


Dourley, John P., The Goddess, Mother of the Trinity

Durham, J., and Porter, J., ed., Proclamation and Presence- note especially De Vaux on Yahweh.

Eichrodt, W., Theology of the OT, esp. 206ff, 410ff.

Johnson, Elizabeth, She Who Is (NY: Crossroad, 1996). Feminist doctrine of God. Many other sources can be found here. m

Motyer, J, The Revelation of the Divine Name.

Plasteras, J., The God of Exodus.

Ryken, Leland, et al., ed., Dictionary of Biblical Imagery (IVP, 1998).

Sanderson, John, Mirrors of His Glory (Phila.: P&R, 1991).

Vos, G., Biblical Theology, 129-34, 253ff, 389ff.

Warfield, B. B., The God of Israel, in Selected Shorter Writings I, 32-37.



Divine Attributes


Barr, James, Biblical Words for Time. Opposes Cullmann's thesis (see below).

Cameron, Nigel M. de S., The Power and Weakness of God

            (Edinburgh: Rutherford House, 1990). L7.90. 140. p.

Clark, Gordon H., "Attributes, the Divine," in Harrison, E., ed., Baker's Dictionary of Theology. Deduces them all from aseity, makes them logically equivalent.

Cullmann, O., Christ and Time. Argues that God is in time.

Helm, Paul, Eternal God (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988). 230.

            h. Calvinist philosopher defends the atemporality of God.

Hughes, Christopher, On a Complex Theory of a Simple God

            (Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1989). 281. h.

Pink, A., The Attributes of God.

Sanderson, John W., Mirrors of His Glory (Phillipsburg: P&R,

            1991). 235. p. Reformed theologian discusses biblical

            images of God, beyond the usual attributes (husband, shepherd,


Sproul, R. C., The Holiness of God (Wheaton: Tyndale, nd.) 234.


            ‑‑, One Holy Passion (Nashville: Nelson, 1987). 185.


Spurgeon, Charles H., Spurgeon on the Attributes of God (MacDill AFB, FL: Tyndale      Bible Society, nd.). 109. P.

Urban, Linwood, and Walton, Douglas N., ed., The Power of God

            (NY: Oxford UP, 1978). 259. p. Philosophical issues.

Wolterstorff, Nicholas, "God Everlasting," in C. Orlebeke and  L. Smedes, ed., God and the Good. Argues that God is in time.




The Trinity


Augustine, On the Trinity

Barth, Church Dogmatics, 1/1-2.

Bickersteth, Edward Henry, The Trinity (Grand Rapids: Kregel,

            1969). 3.50. 182. h. Nineteenth-century work.

Bowman, Robert M., Why You Should Believe in the Trinity

            (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1989). 157. p. Cult fighter.

Clark, Gordon H., The Trinity (Jefferson, MD: Trinity

            Foundation, 1985). 8.95. 139. p.

Edwards, Jonathan, Treatise on Grace and Other Posthumous

            Writings Including Observations on the Trinity

            (Cambridge: Clarke, 1971). 1.50. 131. h.

Feenstra, Ronald J., and Plantinga, Cornelius, ed., Trinity, Incarnation and Atonement (Notre

            Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1989). One source for Plantinga's social


Gruenler, Royce, The Trinity in the Gospel of John (Grand Rapids:

            Baker, 1986). 7.45. 159. p. Interesting discussion of the

            mutual subordination of the persons.

Hodgson, Leonard, The Doctrine of the Trinity. Modern and Modernist.

Jungel, Eberhard, The Doctrine of the Trinity (Grand Rapids:

            Eerdmans, 1976). 6.50. 110. h. Post-Barthian.

Knight, G. A. F., A Biblical Approach to the Doctrine of the Trinity.

Lane, G. E., The Triune God (Redhill, Surrey: Sovereign Grace

            Union, nd). 15. p.

McGrath, Alister, Understanding the Trinity (Grand Rapids:

            Zondervan, 1991). 346. p.

Moltmann, Jurgen, The Trinity and the Kingdom (San Francisco:

            Harper, 1981). 256. p.

Morey, Robert A., The Trinity: Evidence and Issues (Grand Rapids: World Publishing, 1996). 587.

Rahner, Karl, The Trinity (NY: Seabury, 1974). 5.95. 120. h. Leading Roman

            Catholic theologian wants to equate the immanent trinity with the economic.

Toon, Peter, Our Triune God (Wheaton: Victor Books, 1996).

Torrance, Thomas F., The Christian Doctrine of God,

            One Being Three Persons (Edinburgh: T. and T. Clark, 1996). 45.00. 256. H.

Warfield, B. B., "Antitrinitarianism," Selected Shorter Writings I, 88-92.

            --, "The Biblical Doctrine of the Trinity," in Biblical and Theological Studies, 22-59. Excellent.

            --, "Calvin's Doctrine of the Trinity," in Calvin and Augustine 189-284.

Welch, C., The Trinity in Contemporary Thought.



The Deity of Christ


Berkouwer, G. C., The Person of Christ, 155-192.

Boettner, Loraine, The Person of Christ.

Bowman, Robert M., Jehovah's Witnesses, Jesus Christ, and the

            Gospel of John (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1989). 171. p.

Gerstner, John H., A Primer on the Deity of Christ (Phillipsburg: Presbyterian and             Reformed, 1984). 1.75. 38. P.

McDonald, H. D., Jesus—Human and Divine.

Metzger, Bruce, "The Jehovah's Witnesses and Jesus Christ," pamphlet.

Morris, Leon, The Lord from Heaven.

Taylor, Vincent, The Names of Jesus.

            --, The Person of Christ in NT Teaching.

Vos, Geerhardus, The Self-Disclosure of Jesus.

Warfield, B. B., Biblical and Theological Studies, 60-237.

            --, The Lord of Glory.

            --, The Person and Work of Christ, 5-319.

            --, Selected Shorter Writings I, 139-157.


The Existence of God


            See also general works in apologetics.


Allen, Diogenes, The Traces of God (Cowley, 1981).

Bahnsen, Greg, and Stein, Gordon, The Great Debate: Does God Exist? Taped debate,

            Available from Covenant Tape Ministry.

            --, and Edward Tabash, Does God Exist? Taped debate. Available from Covenant Tape


Braine, David, The Reality of Time and the Existence of God

            (Oxford: Clarendon, 1988). 383. h. Difficult.

Davis, Stephen T., God, Reason, and Theistic Proofs

            BL200.D38 1997

Frame, John, Apologetics to the Glory of God (P&R, 1994).

Hayward, Alan, God Is (Nashville: Nelson, 1978). Scientific


Hick, John, Arguments for the Existence of God (NY: Seabury,

1971). Historical survey and critique.

Kenny, Anthony, The Five Ways (Notre Dame: UND Press, 1980).

            Critiques the arguments of Thomas Aquinas.

Kung, Hans, Does God Exist? (NY: Doubleday, 1980). Liberal Roman

            Catholic. Huge book.

Mavrodes, George, Belief in God (NY: Random House, 1970).

            A very important philosophical work.

Mackie, J. L., The Miracle of Theism (Oxford: Clarendon

            Press, 1982). Atheist critiques the theistic arguments.

Miethe, Terry, and Flew, Antony, Does God Exist? (San Francisco: Harper, 1991). 12.95. 296. P. Debate between theist and atheist.

Moreland, J. P., and Nielsen, K., Does God Exist? (Nashville:

            Nelson, 1990). Debate between a thoughtful

            traditional apologist and a famous atheist philosopher.

            Responses by Kreeft, Flew, Craig, Parsons, Willard.

Morey, Robert A., The New Atheism and the Erosion of

            Freedom (Minneapolis: Bethany House, 1986). 6.95.

            176. p.

Plantinga, Alvin, God, Freedom, and Evil (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1974). Contains Plantinga's

ontological argument.

Swinburne, Richard, The Existence of God (Oxford: Clarendon,

            1979). Swinburne is a respected philosopher of religion,

            defender of theism.


Web Sites of Interest


1. Black Alliance for Reformed Theology.


  1. Center for Reformed Theology and Apologetics.


  1. Christian Apologetics and Research Ministry.


  1. Covenant Media Foundation. Articles by Greg Bahnsen and others.


  1. Reformed creeds and confessions available online.


  1. Internet Christian Library. Includes various theological sources, including patristic texts.


  1. Leadership University. Broadly evangelical theological materials.


  1. Resource index on various theological topics.


  1. Sola Scriptura site: a Reformed Theology Resource.


  1. "Abate Not," listing of Reformed resources on the web. 


  1. Rich Pratt's Third Millennium organization, with a worldwide vision. Articles in various languages. Magazine and forum. See also the subsite, which includes the magazine articles and the "Hall of Frame, and, which contains questions and answers on different topics, answered by people like Frame and Ra McLaughlin. Many of Frame's shorter articles are available on one of these sites.


  1. Triablogue, with interesting recent pieces by Frame students Steve Hays and Ryan McReynolds.


  1. Lots of Reformed resources, from a PCA church. A subsite,, will let you download all the major Reformed Confessions for free.


  1. From Westminster Seminary, a very comprehensive catalogue of theological resources on the web. Do browse this one!


  1. A theological encyclopedia, put together by mainly Reformed folks. The interesting thing is that you can add articles or edit those that are there. They are looking for young theologians to help them with this project.