Pastoral and Social Ethics


RTS Orlando


Course Handbook, Spring, 2005


Instructor: John M. Frame

Course Hours: Tuesday, 2-5 PM

Office Hours: Tues., 8-11 AM. Other times by appointment. See my assistant, Jan Brubaker. Feel free also to submit comments or questions by note to my mailbox or by e-mail to



General Plan


            Part One is an introductory section dealing with (1)

basic ethical terminology and (2) a survey of non-Christian

ethical systems. Part Two presents the general structure of

Christian ethics in terms of the norm, the situation, and the

moral agent. Part Three is an exposition of the Decalogue,

applying the commandments to various ethical problems, e.g.

oaths, Sabbath, civil disobedience, punishment, women's rights,

war, capital punishment, abortion, contraception, premarital sex,

homosexuality, world hunger, economic systems, lying in defense

of life, etc.




I. Regular Track:


1.      Completion of reading assignments (below), according to the indicated schedule.


2.      Participation in discussion. I shall teach the first half of the course by directed discussion, based on my forthcoming book, Doctrine of the Christian Life. I will call on students by name to define the key terms and answer the questions in the DCL Study Guide. I will not grade your responses individually, but your overall performance may affect your grade. Extra credit will be given to those who ask good questions and/or make edifying contributions to class discussions. You may lose credit if you are often late, absent without excuse, or unprepared.


3.      Mid-term exam, to be given in the library, from opening of the library, Mon., Mar. 28, to its closing, Sat., Apr. 2. It will cover everything we have covered from the beginning of the course. Important note: In your exam preparation, do not refer to exams used in the course in past years. If you notice anyone else doing this, please report them to me. I will have to regard this as cheating, and RTS has substantial penalties for cheating.


4.      Final Exam, dealing only with Part III of the course, the Ten Commandments. The "Important Note" of #3 applies here as well.


II. Honors Track


            The Honors track is for those who do well academically (around 3.2 or better) and who would prefer to work more independently. Honors students are excused from the two exams. To apply for the honors track, drop a note in my box or e-mail me at Let me know your name, seminary program (M. Div., M. A. in Biblical Studies, etc.), approximate grade average, and the interests you intend to pursue in your research project. For those in the Honors Track, assignments are as follows:


1.      Same as #1 in regular track.


2. Same as #2 in regular track.


3. Prepare four short (one page or so) responses to something in the assigned reading and/or lecture material. Don't just paraphrase the author, but interact, evaluate, analyze, etc. If you are responding to reading assigned for Feb. 11, or to the lecture of Feb. 11, your response is due one week later, Feb. 18. Similarly with assignments and lectures of other weeks.  You can get them to me either by e-mail ( or hardcopy. I won't grade them individually, but I may respond in some way, and the overall quality of your responses may affect your final grade.


4. Research paper, due at the catalogue deadline for papers, Fri., May 13, at 11 AM.


a.      Recommended length, 4500 words (approx. 15 pp., doublespaced). I will not be rigid about the length, but if the paper is longer, the additional pages should be especially worth reading. If it is shorter, it should be equivalent in quality to a longer paper.


b.      For the paper, you should do some research beyond the course assigned reading and lecture material. Indicate such in footnotes and bibliography. I don't care about the style of citations, but please use a consistent system.


c.      For a topic, you may choose anything in the field of ethics. See the lecture outline, study guide, supplementary documents, and the list of topics above under "General Plan" for suggestions. You may write about an ethical philosopher or theologian, exegete a text, deal with some biblical-theological issue with ethical implications (e.g. "Law and Grace in Gal. 3"), treat an ethical problem, or do anything else pertinent to the concerns of the course. I construe "ethics" pretty broadly, but I'd rather you did not choose a topic that is systematically treated in another course, unless you focus on ethical implications of that topic. For instance, don't write on "The Image of God in Reformed Thought," but you might write on "Moral Excellence as an Aspect of the Image of God."


d.      Papers submitted late without valid excuse will lose 1/3 of a grade for every 24 hours (or portion thereof) of lateness. So if you turn your A- paper in five minutes after the deadline, it becomes a B+.


e.      For my grading criteria and abbreviations I use in comments on your papers, see below.



Hall of Frame


            I would like to post the most excellent term papers at, in the "Hall of Frame." This will give other students an idea of my standards for theological writing, and it will honor those who have made an extra effort. If you have any objection to your paper being used in this way, please notify me in advance.





            1. Regular track: 50% for midterm, 50% for final. Your grade may be nudged up or down because of your performance in class.


2. Honors track: Your research paper will basically determine your entire grade, though I may nudge your grade up or down because of your response paragraphs and class performance.


Abbreviations for Comments on Papers


A - awkward

Amb - ambiguous

Arg - more argument needed

C - compress

Circle (drawn around some text)

            - usually refers to

            misspelling or other

            obvious mistake

D - define

E - expand, elaborate, explain

EA - emphasis argument

F - too figurative for context

G - grammatical error

Ill - illegible

Illus - illustrate, give example

Int - interesting

L1 - lateness penalty for one

            day (similarly L2, etc.)

M - misleading in context

O - overstated, overgeneralized

R - redundant

Ref- reference (of pronoun, etc.)

Rel- irrelevant

Rep - repetitious

Resp - not responsive (In a dialogue: one party raises a good

            question to which the other does not respond.)

S - summary needed

Scr - needs more scripture support

Simp - oversimplified

SM - straw man (a view nobody holds)

SS - problem in sentence structure

St - style inappropriate

T - transition needed

U - unclear

V - vague

W - questionable word-choice

Wk - weak writing (too many

            passives, King James

            English, etc.)

WO - word order

WV - whose view? yours?

            another author?



Grading System For Papers


            A: Good grasp of basic issues, plus something really extraordinary, worthy of publication in either a technical or popular publication. That special excellence may be of various kinds: formulation, illustration, comprehensiveness, subtlety/nuance, creativity, argument, insight, correlations with other issues, historical perspective, philosophical sophistication, research beyond the requirements of the assignment. One of these will be enough!


            A‑: An A paper, except that it requires some minor improvement before an editor would finally accept it for publication.


            B+: Good grasp of basic issues but without the special excellences noted above. A few minor glitches.


            B: The average grade for graduate study. Good grasp of basic issues, but can be significantly improved.


            B‑: Shows an understanding of the issues, but marred by significant errors, unclarities (conceptual or linguistic), unpersuasive arguments, and/or shallow thinking.


            C+: Raises suspicions that to some extent the student is merely manipulating terms and concepts without adequately understanding them, even though to a large extent these terms and concepts are used appropriately. Does show serious study and preparation.


            C: Uses ideas with some accuracy, but without mastery or insight; thus the paper is often confused.


            C‑: Problems are such that the student evidently does not understand adequately the issues he/she is writing about, but the work may nevertheless be described as barely competent.


            D: I don't give D's on papers.


            F: Failure to complete the assignment satisfactorily. Such performance would disqualify a candidate for ministry if it were part of a presbytery exam.


            Most of my students get B's. I try to keep A's and C's to a relatively small number.  F's are extremely rare, but I have given a few.





Schedule of Assignments          




BC: Belgic Confession. The Reformed and Presbyterian confessions and

catechisms, with many other creeds, can be found at

DCL: Frame, Doctrine of the Christian Life. Available at Click "Hall of Frame."

EE: John Jefferson Davis, Evangelical Ethics (Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R, 1993).

HC: Heidelberg Catechism

LO: Lecture Outline. I will not be using this during the first half of the course, since I will be leading discussions rather than lecturing. I will lecture from it during the second half of the course. For your edification, I'm making the whole outline (covering both sections of the course) available to you, at

MDR: Jay Adams, Marriage, Divorce and Remarriage (Grand Rapids:

Zondervan, 1986).

ME: Frame, Medical Ethics (Phillipsburg: P&R, 1988).

PC: John Murray, Principles of Conduct  (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1957).

PWG: Frame, Perspectives on the Word of God (Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock,


SD: Frame, Supplementary Documents (also available at click "Hall of Frame.")

SG: Study Guide. There are two study guides for this course. For the first half of

the course we will be using the "DCL Study Guide, 12-04." In the second

half, we will use the "Pastoral and Social Ethics Study Guide." In the first half, you are required to be able to define the key terms and answer the Study Guide questions in class discussion. In the second half, the Study Guide is only a tool that you may use or not as you wish. I will not hold you specifically responsible for the terms and questions on it, though the Study Guide does reflect the course material, for which you are responsible.

WCF: Westminster Confession of Faith

WLC: Westminster Larger Catechism

WSC: Westminster Shorter Catechism

WST: Frame, Worship in Spirit and Truth


            Please note:


(1) The assignments vary greatly in length. Pace yourself. Plan ahead. Get started early.


 (2) For the most part, especially in the second half of the course, the lectures will fall behind your reading assignments. I have grouped the reading assignments, not to anticipate precisely when a topic will be discussed in class, but to give you the order in which topics will be considered, and to divide the reading into fairly manageable slices.


Feb. 1: Introduction


            DCL, Chapters 1-4, and SG Questions.


Feb. 8: Survey of Non-Christian Ethics


            DCL, Chapters 5-8

            EE, 1-13.

            HC, 1-2, 91.

            PC, 11-14.


                        Frame and Kurtz, "Do We Need God to Be Moral?"

            WCF, 16.


Feb. 15: A Christian Model for Ethical Decision-Making

The Normative Perspective


            BC, 25.

            DCL, Chapters 9-11.

            Formula of Concord (Lutheran Confession), 5, 6.

            HC, 63-64, 86-90 (review 91), 114-115.

            PC, 19-26, 149-157, 181-201, 263-267.

            PWG, 39-56.

            WCF 1.6-10; 16, 19.1-4, 20.

            WLC, 1, 91-97.

            WSC, 1, 39-40.


Feb. 22: Using the Law; Natural Law


            DCL, Chapters 12-14.


Mar. 1: The Situational Perspective


            BC, 24.

            DCL, Chapters 15-17.

            HC, 63-64.

            LO, 68-90.

            PC, 35-44.

            WCF, 16.5.

            WLC, 1, 149-151.

            WSC, 1.


Mar. 8: The Existential Perspective


            BC, 24.

            DCL, Chapters 18-21.

HC, 86-90 (review 91).

PC, 202-242 (review 19-21).

WCF, review 16.


Mar. 15: SPRING BREAK: No class.


Mar. 22:Intro. to the Decalogue; First Commandment


HC, 92-95.

            LO, 115-132.


                        "Heart Righteousness and Decalogical Hermeneutics"

                        "Preaching Christ From the Decalogue"

                        "Christian Schools"

                        "Christians and Charter Schools"

            SG: Lessons 27-30. This refers to a different Study Guide from the one

you have been using, the "Pastoral and Social Ethics Study Guide." You are not required to prepare any of the

key terms or questions for class. This Study Guide is for your

benefit, if you find it useful.

            WCF, 92-93.

            WLC, 98-106.

            WSC, 42-48.


MAR. 28-APR. 2: MIDTERM EXAM, given in the library, covering all lectures and readings through the Mar. 8 assignment.


Mar. 29: Second and Third Commandments


HC, 96-102.

            LO, 132-165.

            PC, 168-174.


                        "A Fresh Look at the Regulative Principle"

                        "Oaths and Slang"

SG, Lessons 31-33.


WLC, 107-114.

WSC, 49-56.

WST, 1-62, 123-134.



Apr. 5: Fourth Commandment


            HC, 103.

            LO, 165-190.

            PC, 30-44, 82-89.

            SG, Lessons 34-35.

            WCF, XXI.

            WLC, 115-121.

            WSC, 57-62.


Apr. 12: Fifth Commandment


            EE, 175-205.

            HC, 104

            LO, 190-203.

            PC, 259-262, 93-106.


                        "The Biblical Doctrine of the Family,"

                        Frame, "Toward a Theology of the State"

                        "Operation Rescue: Case Study on Civil Disobedience,"

                        "Women in the Church,"

                        "Report of the Committee on Women in Church Office,"

                        "Women as Adult Sunday School Teachers"

            SG, Lesson 36.

            WCF, 23.

            WLC, 122-133.

            WSC, 63-66.


Apr. 19: Sixth Commandment


            EE, 53-79, 117-173, 207-228.

HC, 105-107.

            LO, 203-224.

            ME, all.

            PC, 107-122, 157-169, 174-180.


                        Frame, Review of Christian Faith, Health and Medical


            SG, Lesson 37.

            WLC, 134-136.

            WSC, 67-69.


Apr. 26: Sixth Commandment, Continued



                        "Ministries of Mercy to the Unborn,"

                        "The New Reproduction,"


                        "Racism, Sexism, Marxism,"

                        "Meaning of Racism"

                        "Minorities and the Reformed Churches."


May 3: Seventh Commandment


            EE, 15-51, 81-115.

            HC, 108-109.

            LO, 224-228.

            MDR, all.

            PC, 11-19, 27-30, 45-81, 250-258.


            "Homosexuality and AIDS,"

                        "Living With Ourselves," review.

            "Recent Reflections on Divorce,"


            SG, Lesson 38.

            WCF, 24.

            WLC, 137-139.

            WSC, 73-75.


May 10: Eighth Through Tenth Commandments


HC, 110-113.

            LO, 228-242.

            PC, 82-106.


                        "Stealing by Government,"


                        "Must We Always Tell the Truth?"

            SG, Lesson 39-41.

WLC, 140-148.

WSC 73-81.


HONORS TRACK: Papers are due on Friday, May 13 (!), 11:00 A. M.




Course Bibliographies


            These are more or less in the order in which the subjects are treated in the course. Contents:


General Ethics Texts

General Biblical Ethics

Philosophical Ethics

Natural Law


Law in the Bible

Law and Grace, Law and Gospel

Old and New Covenants

Love, Law, and Situation Ethics

Imprecatory Psalms


Ethics and Free Will


Introduction to the Decalogue

First Commandment:

            The Occult

            Secret Societies

            Secular Schools



Social Ethics: General

State, Politics


Medical Ethics; Termination of Treatment



Man and Woman: Marriage, Family, Divorce



Substance Abuse

Economics; Poverty



General Ethics Texts


Barth, Karl, The Christian Life (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1981). 310. H.

-, Church Dogmatics, esp. I/2, 401‑454, 782‑796; II/2, 509ff, 704ff; III/4.

Bonhoeffer, D., Ethics.

Brunner, E., The Divine Imperative.

     —, Dogmatics, II, 215ff; III, 306ff.

     —, Faith Hope and Love.

Bunyan, J., Christian Behavior (in Complete Works, NFCE, 1968, I, 164ff).


Calvin, John, Golden Booklet of the True Christian Life (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1952). 1.50. 98. H. Also paperback copy, 1982.

Clark, David K., and Rakestraw, Robert V., Readings in Christian Ethics (Grand

Rapids: Baker, 1994). 2 vols. Mostly evangelical. In past years, I assigned these volumes for the course. I've concluded that the readings are a bit long for that purpose, but they are quite valuable in helping you to see the range of opinions in the evangelical world on ethical issues.

Clark, Gordon H., A Christian View of Men and Things, III‑IV.

            --, Essays on Ethics and Politics (Jefferson,

            MD: Trinity Foundation, 1992). 10.95. 236. p.

     —, Religion, Reason and Revelation, IV.

     —, "The Wheaton Lectures," in Nash, ed., The Philosophy of Gordon H. Clark (esp. 112‑117, later discussion).

     —, and Smith, T. V., eds., Readings in Ethics (anthology of secular ethics).

Cox, Harvey, ed., The Situation Ethics Debate (Phila.:

            Westminster Press, 1968). 1.95. 285. p.

Davis, John Jefferson, Evangelical Ethics (Phila.: Presbyterian

            and Reformed, 1985, 1993). Good reformed survey of ethical

            issues under current discussion.

De Boer, C., Responsible Protestantism (1957) ‑ Christian Reformed.

DeJong, P. Y., The Christian Life (1950).

DeWolf, L. H., Responsible Freedom (1971) ‑ liberal.

Douma, J., Christian Morals and Ethics (Winnepeg: Premier Publishing, 1980). 100. P.

            --, Responsible Conduct (Phillipsburg: P&R, 2003).

            --, The Ten Commandments (Phillipsburg: P&R, 1996). 410. Excellent treatment.

Edwards, Jonathan, Charity and its Fruits (Banner of Truth, 1969).

            --, The Nature of True Virtue.

Erickson, Millard J., Relativism in Contemporary Christian Ethics (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1974). 3.95. 170. P. 2 copies.

Ferguson, Sinclair, Kingdom Life in a Fallen World (Colorado

            Springs: Navpress, 1986). The Sermon on the Mount.

Fletcher, Joseph, Situation Ethics (Phila.: Westminster Press,

            1966). 176. p. Notorious liberal work.

Friesen, Garry, Decision Making and the Will of God (Portland: Multnomah Press, 1980). 452. H.

Geesink, W., Gereformeerde Ethiek (1930) ‑ comprehensive, traditional


Geisler, Norman, The Christian Ethic of Love (Grand Rapids:

            Zondervan, 1973). 127. p.

            --, Christian Ethics (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1989).

            ‑‑, Ethics: Alternatives and Issues (Grand Rapids:

            Zondervan, 1971). 6.95. 270. h.

Gilson, E., Moral Values and the Moral Life (R.C.).

Guatafson, J., Christ and the Moral Life ‑ liberal, but more moderate than Fletcher.

Haring, B., The Law of Christ ‑ R.C.

Harkness, G., Christian Ethics (1957) ‑ liberal.

            --, John Calvin: The Man and His Ethics (NY: Abingdon, 1931, 1958). 1.50. 266. P.

Harrison, R. K., ed., Encyclopedia of Biblical and Christian

            Ethics (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1987).

The Hastings Center, Various periodicals and publications by contemporary


Henry, Carl F. H., Aspects of Christian Social Ethics (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans,   1964). 3.95. 190. H. 

            --, ed., Baker's Dictionary of Christian Ethics

            (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1973). 16.95. 726. h.

            ‑‑, Christian Personal Ethics (Grand Rapids:

            Eerdmans, 1957). 6.95. 615. h.

            --, A Plea for Evangelical Demonstration (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1971). 3.95. 124. H.

Hildebrand, D. von, Christian Ethics (1953) ‑ traditional R.C.

Holmes, Arthur, Ethics: Approaching Moral Decisions (Downers

            Grove: IVP, 1984). 3.70. 132. p

Hughes, Philip E., Christian Ethics in Secular Society (Grand

            Rapids: Baker, 1983). Somewhat more broad and general

            than Davis.

Jellema, D., "Ethics," in Henry, C., ed., Contemporary Evangelical Thought, (Christian Reformed).

Kaiser, Walter, Toward Old Testament Ethics (Grand Rapids:

            Zondervan, 1983).

Kantzer, Kenneth, ed., Applying the Scriptures: Papers From

            ICBI Summit III (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987).

Kevan, Ernest F., The Grace of Law: A Study of Puritan Theology (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1965). 4.95. 294. H.

            --, The Moral Law  (Jenkintown, PA: Sovereign Grace, 1963). 149. H.

Kierkegaard, S., Many of his works deal with ethical issues, notably: Fear and Trembling, Purity of Heart, Stages Along Life's Way, Training in Christianity, Words of Love.

Kirk, K., Conscience and Its Problems (1927) ‑ Anglican.

     —, Personal Ethics.

Kock, A., and Preuss, M., A Handbook of Moral Theology (1925), 5 vole., R.C.

Kurtz, Paul, ed., Moral Problems in Contemporary Society (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1969). 301. P. Secular philosophy.

Law, William, A Serious Call to a Devout and Holy Life (Grand Rapids: Sovereign Grace, 1971). 163. P. 

Lewis, C. S., The Four Loves.

MacQuarrie, J., ed., Dictionary of Christian Ethics (1967) ‑ liberal.

     —, Three Issues in Ethics.

Maritain, J., True Humanism ‑ R.C.

Maston, T. B., The Conscience of a Christian (1971) ‑ evangelical.

     —, Right or Wrong.

McQuilkin, Robertson, An Introduction to Biblical Ethics

            (Wheaton: Tyndale, 1985). 563. p.

Mehl, R., Catholic Ethics and Protestant Ethics (1971).

Monsma, P., Calvin and Ethics (1959).

Murray, J., Collected Writings, I, 169‑185 (essays on "Christian Doctrine and Life," "The Christian Ethic," "Adorning the Gospel."

     —, Principles of Conduct (1957).

Niebuhr, Reinhold, An Interpretation of Christian Ethics

            (NY: Seabury, 1979). 150. p.

Niebuhr, H. Richard, The Responsible Self (NY: Harper, 1963). 3.50. 183. H.

Nygren, A., Agape and Eros (1932) ‑ seminal work; neo‑orthodox.

Orlebeke, C., and Smedes, L., God and the Good (1975).

Outka, G., Agape: An Ethical Analysis (1972).

Pannenberg, Wolfhart, Ethics (Phila.: Westminster Press, 1981). 220. P.

Pieper, J., Fortitude and Temperance (London: Faber and Faber, 1955) ‑ R.C.

     —, Happiness and Contemplation.

     —, Justice.

     —, Leisure: The Basis of Culture.

     —, Prudence.

Ramm, B., The Right, the Good and the Happy (Waco: Word, 1971).

     —, "Ethics in the Theology of Hope," Pinnock, C., ed., Toward a Theology for the Future (Carol Stream, Ill.: Creation House, 1971).

Ramsey, P., Basic Christian Ethics (N.Y.: Scribner, 1950).

     —, ed., Faith and Ethics: The Theology of H. Richard Niebuhr (N.Y.: Harper,


     —, Nine Modern Moralists (1962). Ramsey is probably the single most influential Protestant ethical theologian today.

Reagan, G. M., New Trends in Moral Theology (Newman Press, 1971) ‑ R.C.

Robinson, N. H. G., The Groundwork of Christian Ethics (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1971).

Satris, Stephen, Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial

            Moral Issues (Guilford, CT.: Dushkin, 1992). 385. p.

            ‑‑, Same, 4th ed., 1994. 12.95. 372. p. Secular writers and a few

            Christians on various sides of issues. I've used these books as a text in

            the course.

Schaeffer, Edith, Lifelines: The Ten Commandments For Today (Westchester: Crossway, 1982). 7.16. 213. H.

Schaeffer, F., The Mark of the Christian (IVP, 1970).

Smedes, Lewis, Choices (San Francisco: Harper, 1986).

            --, Love Within Limits (I Cor. 13) (Grand Rapids:

            Eerdmans, 1978).

            --, Mere Morality (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1983). Smedes

            is an older Christian Reformed minister recently retired

            from teaching at Fuller Seminary. His view of Scripture

            is typical of Fuller. His writings are original,

            insightful, but not always, in my opinion, properly

            respectful of scriptural principles, especially in their


Sproul, R. C., Ethics and the Christian (Wheaton: Tyndale, 1983). 93. P.

            --, Pleasing God (Wheaton: Tyndale, 1988). 234. h.

Stob, H., Ethical Reflections (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1978) ‑ Christian


Stoeckle, Bernard, The Concise Dictionary of Christian Ethics (NY: Seabury,

            1979). 10.50. 285. H.

Temple, W., Nature, Man and God (London: Macmillan, 1956) ‑ esp. 166‑197.

Thielicke, H., Theological Ethics (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1966), 3 vols. Lutheran,


Thomas, G. F., Christian Ethics and Moral Philosophy (N.Y.: Scribner's, 1955).


Tillich, P., The Courage to Be (New Haven: Yale, 1952).

     —, Love, Power, and Justice (London: Oxford, 1954).

     —, Morality and Beyond (N.Y.: Harper, 1963).

     —, My Search for Absolutes (N.Y.: Simon and Schuster, 1967).

     —, Systematic Theology (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1951‑1963) ‑‑note especially vol. III, and in that volume especially 44‑50, 94‑107, 157‑162, 245‑275; also I, 81‑94, 147‑155.

     —, Theology of Culture (N.Y.: Oxford, 1959). See also under Kegley, above.

Tillich is extremely liberal.

Van Til, Cornelius, Christian‑Theistic Ethics (NP: Den Dulk

            Foundation, 1971).

Verhey, Allen, The Great Reversal: Ethics and the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1984). 13.95. 246. P.

Voetius, G., "Concerning Practical Theology," "Concerning ‘Precision,'" (1648-1649), in Beardslee, J., ea., Reformed Dogmatics, ("Protestant Scholastic").

Wallace, Ronald S., Calvin's Doctrine of the Christian Life (Tyler: GDS Press, 1959, 1982). 13.95. 349. P.

            --, The Ten Commandments (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1965). 3.95. 181. H.

Wardlaw, R., Christian Ethics (London: Jackson and Walford, 1852).

Warfield, B. B., Selected Shorter Writings I (Nutley, N.J.: Presbyterian and Reformed, 1970), 41‑45, 130‑135, 365‑380, 411‑425.

Watson, Thomas, The Ten Commandments (London: Banner of Truth, 1890, 1965). 15s. 245. H.

Westermarck, E., Christianity and Morals (Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries,


Willis, F., The Ethics of Karl Barth (Brill, 1972).

Willard, Dallas, In Search of Guidance (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1993). 247. P.

Wollebius, J., "The Service of God" (1626), in Beardslee, J., ed., Reformed


Wolterstorff, Nicholas, Until Justice and Peace Embrace

            (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1983). 197. h.

Yoder, John H., The Politics of Jesus (1972) ‑ Anabaptist, pacifist.



General Biblical Ethics (cf. also the biblical theologies and dictionaries). These are not rigidly distinguishable from the last category. The books listed earlier also contain some exegetical material. The difference is a difference of focus.


Bornkamm, G., Jesus of Nazareth (N.Y.: Harper, 1960).

Dewar, L., An Outline of N.T. Ethics (1949).

Eichrodt, W., Man in the O.T. (1951).

     —, Theology of the O.T. (1961, especially I, 70‑97, 228‑288, 360364,


Enslin, M.S., The Ethics of St. Paul.

Knox, J., The Ethics of Jesus.

Lillie, W., Studies in N.T. Ethics (London: Oliver and Boyd, 1961).

Lloyd-Jones, M., Studies in the Sermon on the Mount (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1959), 2 vols.

Manson, T. W., Ethics and the Gospel (N.Y.: Scribner's, 1960).

     —, The Teachings of Jesus (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1935).

Maston, T. B., Biblical Ethics (Waco: Word, 1967).

Marahall, L. H., The Challenge of N.T. Ethics (Macmillan, 1947).

Minear, P., Commands of Christ (Abingdon, 1972).

Murray, J., "Ethics Biblical," (Douglas, J. N., ed., The New Bible Dictionary (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1962).

Ridderbos, H., The Coming of the Kingdom (Philadelphia: Presbyterian and Reformed, 1962), esp. 185‑333.

Scott, E. F., The Ethical Teachings of Jesus (N.Y.: Macmillan, 1923).

     —, The Kingdom of God in the N.T. (N.Y., 1931).

Schnackenburg, R., The Moral Teaching of the N.T.

Van Unnik, W., Het Nieuwe Testament En De Ethiek (Kampen: Kok, 1970).

Vos, G., Biblical Theology (1948), esp. 141‑159, 284‑307, 383‑389, 422‑426.

     —, The Kingdom and the Church (1958), 59‑69.

     —, The Pauline Eschatology (1961), 62‑72.

Wilder, A., Eschatology and Ethics in the Teachings of Jesus (1950).

     —, Otherworldliness In the N.T. (1954).

Windisch, H., The Meaning of the Sermon on the Mount (1951) ‑ note interesting statement on p. 86.


Philosophical Ethics


1. Greek Philosophical Sources


Aristotle, Nicomachaean Ethics.

     —, Politics.

Plato, Charmides, Crito, Euthyphro, Laches, Laws, Republic (dialogues).

Seneca, Epistulae Morales (Stoic).


2. Recent Philosophical Ethics: General (histories, readings, analyses)


Albert, Ethel, et al., ed., Great Traditions in Ethics (NY:

            American Book Company, 1953). 362. h.

Bergson, H., The Two Sources of Morality and Religion (1935).

Binkley, L., Contemporary Ethical Theories (1961).

Brandt, R., Ethical Theory (1959).

     —, ed., Value and Obligation.

Broad, C. D., Ethics and the History of Philosophy (1952).

     —, Five Types of Ethical Theory (l930).

Castaneda, H. N., and Nakhnikian, G., Morality and the Language of Conduct (1965).

Clark, G., see titles in general bibliography.

D'Arcy, E., Moral Acts (1963).

Edwards, P., ed., The Encyclopedia of Philosophy (1967).

Ferm, V., ed., Encyclopedia of Morals (1956).

Frame, John, Perspectives on the Word of God (Phillipsburg:

            P&R, 1990). 66. p.

Frankena, W., Ethics (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1963).

--, "Moral Philosophy at Mid-Century," Philosophical Review, (Jan., 1951).

Garnett, A. C., Ethics: A Critical Introduction (1960).

Helm, Paul, ed., Divine Commands and Morality (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1981). 186. P.

Hill, T. E., Contemporary Ethical Theories (1950).

Holmes, Arthur, Ethics: Approaching Moral Decisions (Downers

            Grove: IVP, 1984). 3.70. 132. P

Hudson, W. D., A Century of Moral Philosophy (NY: St. Martin's Press, 1980). 198. H.

            --, ed., New Studies in Ethics. Volume One, Classical Theories (NY: St. Martin's Press, 1967, 1970). 466. H.

            --, Same. Volume Two, Modern Theories (NY: St. Martin's Press, 1967, 1973). 504. H.

            --, ed., The Is/Ought Question (London: Macmillan, 1969). 271. P.

Hume, David, Hume's Moral and Political Philosophy (NY: Hafner Publishing Co., 1948, 1959). 1.50. 388. P.

Johnson, O. A., Ethics: Selections (1965).

Kant, Immanuel, Critique of Judgment (NY: Hafner, 1972). 339. P.

--, Kant on the Foundations of Morality (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1970). 3.95. 277. P.

            --, Lectures on Ethics (NY: Harper, 1963). 2.45. 253. p.

            --, The Metaphysical Principles of Virtue (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1964). 1.45. 174. P.

Mabbott, J. D., An Introduction to Ethics (1966).

MacIntyre, A., A Short History of Ethics (NY: Macmillan, 1966).

Martineau, J., Types of Ethical Theory (1885).

Melden, A. I., ed., Ethical Theories (readings) (1950).

Moore, G. E., Ethics (London: Oxford UP, 1912, 1969).

            110. p.

            ‑‑, Principia Ethica (Cambridge: Cambridge UP,

            1903, 1968). 2.25. 232. p.

Nowell‑Smith, P. H., Ethics (Misslesex: Penguin, 1954). 1.25.

            324. p.

Plantinga, A., ed., Faith and Philosophy (1964) ‑ contains some important articles on ethics; submitted as Festschrift for W. Henry Jellema of Calvin College.

Ramsey, I., Christian Ethics and Contemporary Philosophy (1966) ‑ quite a number of articles on the question of whether we can define goodness in relation to God.

Sellars, W., and Hospers, J., eds., Readings in Ethical Theory (1952).

Spencer, H., Principles of Ethics (1893) ‑ that old social Darwinist.

Stevenson, Charles L., Ethics and Language (New Haven: Yale UP,

            1944). 1.95. 338. p. Emotivism.

Toulmin, Stephen, The Place of Reason in Ethics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1950, 1986). 228. P.

Van Til, C., Christian-Theistic Ethics.

Warnock, G. J., Contemporary Moral Philosophy (London:

            MacMillan, 1967). 81. p.

Warnock, Mary, Ethics Since 1900 (Oxford: Oxford UP, 1960).

            1.35. 152. p.

            ‑‑, Existentialist Ethics (London: MacMillan, 1967).

            59. p.

Woods, G., A Defense of Theological Ethics (1966).


Specific Kinds of Philosophy


            1. Kant


Butler, J., "Dissertation on Virtue," appendix to the Analogy of Religion.

Field, G. C., "A Criticism of Kant" in Sellars and Hospers, 487‑491.

Kant, I., Critique of Practical Reason.

     —, Lectures on Ethics.

     —, Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals.

     —, Metaphysics of Morals.

     —, Religion Within the Limits of Reason Alone.

Paton, H. J., The Categorical Imperative (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1948).

Rosa, W. D., Kant's Ethical Theory (N.Y.: Oxford Univ. Press, 1954).

Walsh, W., "Kant's Moral Theology," Proceedings of the British Academy, XLIX (1963).


2. Idealism


Bosanquet, B., Some Suggestions in Ethics (1918).

Bradley, F. H., Ethical Studies (1927).

Fichte, J. G., Science of Ethics (tr. 1907).


3. Utilitarianism


Bentham, J., An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (London, 1780).

Mill, J. S., Dissertations and Discussions (N.Y., 1873) ‑ see essay on Bentham.

     —, Utilitarianism, Liberty and Representative Government (N.Y.:Dutton, 1951).

Sidgwick, H., The Methods of Ethics (N.Y.: Macmillan, 1901).

Smart, J. J. C., "Extreme and Restricted Utilitarianism," Philosophical Quarterly


Stace, W. T., The Concept of Morals (N.Y.: Macmillan, 1937).


4. G. E. Moore


Cavell, S., Must We Mean What We Say? (N.Y., 1869), chap. I.

Hudson, W. D., "Fact and Moral Value," Religious Studies, V, 2 (Dec., 1969).

     —, ed., The Is/Ought Question (N.Y.: Macmillan, 1969).

Moore, G. E., Principia Ethica (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1903).

     —, Ethics (London: Oxford, 1912).

Olthuis, J., Facts, Values and Ethics (Assert: Van Gorcum, 1968) ‑ possibly the best analysis of Moore and his successors. His own position is that of the Amsterdam philosophy.

Schilpp, P., ed., The Philosophy of G. E. Moore (Evanston: Northwestern Univ. Press, 1942).

Sellars and Hospers, op. cit., 103‑114 (Frankena on "the naturalistic fallacy").


5. Later Intuitionism


Carritt, E., Ethical and Political Thinking (London: Oxford, 1947).

     —, Theory of Morals (London: Oxford, 1928).

Ewing, A. C., The Definition of Good (N.Y.: Macmillan, 1947).

     —, Ethics (London: English Universities Press, 1953).

     —, Second Thoughts in Moral Philosophy (London: Routledge and Kegan-Paul, 1959).

Olthuis, J., op. cit.

Prichard, H., Moral Obligation (London: Oxford, 1949).

     —, "Does Moral Philosophy Rest on a Mistake?" in Sellars and Hospers, op. cit., 149‑162.

Ross, W. D., Foundations of Ethics (London: Oxford, 1930).

     —, The Right and the Good (London: Oxford, 1930).


6. Naturalism and Pragmatism


Dewey, J., Human Nature and Conduct (N.Y., 1922).

     —, Theory of the Moral Life (N.Y.: Rinehart and Winston, 1960).

     —, Theory of Valuation (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1939).

     —, The Quest for Certainty.

     —, and Tufts, J., Ethics (N.Y., 1938).

Foot, P., "Moral Arguments" Mind LXVII (1958), 502‑513.

     —, "Moral Beliefs," Proceedings of the Aristotelian Soc. (1958); also in Hudson anthology cited earlier).

     —, "When is a Principle a Moral Principle?" Proceedings of the Aristotelian Soc. Supplement, 28.

Lewis, C. I., An Analysis of Knowledge and Valuation (La Salle: Open Court, 1946).

Perry, R. B., General Theory of Value (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1950).

     —, Realms of Value (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1954).

     —, "Value as Any Object of Any Interest," in Sellars and Hospers, op. cit., 292‑309.


7. Emotivism


Ayer, A. J., Language, Truth and Logic (N.Y., 1946), 102‑120.

Brandt, R. B., "The Emotive Theory of Ethics," Philosophical Review, LIX (1950).

Irving, J. A., "Toward Radical Empiricism in Ethics," in Kallen, H., and Hook, S., eds., American Philosophy Today and Tomorrow (N.Y: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1965).

Schlick, M., Problems of Ethics (N.Y: Prentice-Hall, 1939)

     —, "What is the Aim of Ethics?" in Ayer, A. J., ed., Logical Positivism (Glencoe: Free Press, 1959).

Stevenson, C. L., Ethics and Language (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1944).

     —, Facts and Values (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1963).

     —, "The Nature of Ethical Disagreement," in Feigl, H., and Sellars, W., eds., Readings in Philosophical Analysis (N.Y.: Appleton-Century Crofts, 1949).

     —, "Persuasive Definitions," Mind, 1938.


8. Recent Analytic Approaches


Baier, K., The Moral Point of View (1958). Baier, Rawls, Toulmin, von Wright and others represent the so-called "good reasons" approach.

Braithewaite, R. B., review of Hare, The Language of Morals, in Mind (April, 1954).

     —, Theory of Games as a Tool for the Moral Philosopher (1955).

Edwards, P., The Logic of Moral Discourse.

Findlay, J. N., "The Justification of Attitudes," Mind (1954).

Frankena, W., Ethics (excellent brief survey).

Hampshire, S., "Fallacies in Moral Philosophy," Mind, LVIII (1940), 466‑482.

     —, Freedom of the Individual (1965).

     —, Thought and Action (1959).

Hare, R. M., Freedom and Reason (1963).

     —, The Language of Morals (1952).

Hospers, J., Human Conduct (1961).

Nowell‑Smith, P., Ethics (1954).

Pepper, S., The Sources of Value (1958).

Prior, A., Logic and the Basis of Ethics (1949).

Rawls, J., "Outline of a Decision Procedure for Ethics," Philosophical Review LX (177-197).

Taylor, P., Normative Discourse (1961).

Toulmin, S., The Place of Reason in Ethics (1950).

Urmson, J., "On Grading," in Flew, A., ed., Logic and Language, Second Series (1953); Mind, LIX (l950).

Von Wright, G., Norm and Action (1963).

     —, The Varieties of Goodness (1963).


9. Phenomenology, Existentialism


Brentano, F., The Origin of the Knowledge of Right and Wrong (Westminster, Constable, 1902).

Hartmann, N., Ethics, 3 vols. (N.Y.: Macmillan, 1932).

Scheler, M., Formalism in Ethics (Halle, 1916).

     —, The Nature of Sympathy (Bonn, 1923).

Kierkegaard, S., Either/Or.

Schopenhauer, A , The Basis of Morality (tr. 1903).

Nietzsche, F., Genealogy of Morals.

Sartre, J. P., Being and Nothingness (N.Y.: Philosophical Library, 1956).

     —, "Existentialism is a Humanism," in Kaufmann, W., ed., Existentialism From Dostoevsky to Sartre (1957), 287‑311.

Warnock, M., Existentialist Ethics (N.Y.: St. Martin's Press, 1967).



Natural Law


Armstrong, R., Primary and Secondary Precepts in Thomistic Natural Law Teaching Hague: Guilders, 1966).

Budziszewski, J., The Revenge of Conscience (Dallas: Spence, 1999).

            --, What We Can't Not Know (Dallas: Spence, 2003.

            --, Written on the Heart (Downers Grove: IVP, 1997). Budziszewski is the most cogent defender of this position, in my judgment.

Dodd, C. H., Natural Law in the Bible (l946).

Harding, A., ed., Origins of the Natural Law Tradition (Dallas: SMU, 1954).

Leithart, Peter, Natural Law: a Reformed Critique (Niceville, FL: Biblical Horizons,


Sutter, J., The Structure of Christian Ethics (contextualist).

Spier, J. M., An Introduction to Christian Philosophy (Philadelphia: Presbyterian and Reformed, 1954), 119-122; cf. 88, elsewhere.

Von Meyenfeldt, F. H., The Meaning of Ethos (Hamilton, ARSS, 1964): Spier and Von Meyenfeldt represent the philosophy of the cosmonomic idea.




Bell, W., "The Once 'er", Presbyterian Guardian (May, 1972) (note reply by Ralph Verno in Aug.-Sept. issue).

Clowney, E. P., Called to the Ministry (Philadelphia: W.T.S., 1964).

Harris, R. L., "Acts 15 and the Authority of a Church Synod," Presbyterian Guardian (Dec., 1971), 138 (note later replies).

Keller, R., "Why Not Total Abstinence?" Presbyterian Guardian (April, 1971), 52f.

Kuiper, R. B., God's Will and God's Word (Committee on Christian Et., OPC


Murray, J., "The Weak and the Strong," Westminster Theological Journal, XII, 2 (May, 1950), 136-153.

Orthodox Presbyterian Church: These matters have been debated for the entire history of this denomination, both in the pages of the Presbyterian Guardian and in the Minutes of the General Assembly. The Third General Assembly adopted a statement on "Christian Liberty;" most recently, the Thirty‑Sixth Assembly heard reports on "The Adiaphora" and "Guidance." published in those minutes. Between those two assemblies much was done, said, written on those subjects: see indices.

Reynolds, S., "Another Conscience," Presbyterian Guardian (March, 1969),


Vos, J., The Separated Life (Committee on Christian Education, OPC) ‑ pamphlet; concise clear statement of one Reformed approach.


Law in the Bible


Alt, A., "The Origins of Israelite Law," in Essays on O.T. History and Religion,


Fairbairn, P., The Revelation of Law in Scripture.

Hennig, F., God's Basic Law.

Kevan, E., The Grace of Law (1965) (historical study, bibliography).

     —, The Moral Law.

Kline, M., By Oath Consigned (esp. chapter II).

     —, The Structure of Biblical Authority.

     —, Treaty of the Great King.

Mendenhall, G., "Ancient Oriental and Biblical Law," The Biblical Archaeologist, XVII (1954), 26‑46.

Noth, M., The Laws in the Penteteuch.



Law and Grace, Law and Gospel


Anderson, J. N. D., Morality, Law and Grace (Inter‑Varsity, 1972).

Berkouwer, G. C., Faith and Sanctification (1952), 163‑193.

Branscomb, H., Jesus and the Law of Moses (1930).

Bultmann, R., Theology of the New Testament, esp. I, 216ff, 259ff, 340ff; II,


Davies, W. D., "Ethics in the N.T.," Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, ad loc.

     —, "Law in the N.T.," ibid.

     —, Paul and Rabbinic Judaism (1948).

     —, The Setting of the Sermon on the Mount (1964). Davies finds N.T. ethics to be based on the words of Jesus as a "new law."

Dodd, C. H., Gospel and Law.

Elert, W., Law and Gospel.

Fuller, Daniel, Gospel and Law: Contrast or Continuum? (Grand

            Rapids: Eerdmans, 1980).

Kline, M., titles cited under Lesson 9.

McClain, A., Law and the Christian Believer in Relation to the Doctrine of Peace (pamphlet) ‑ concise, clear statement of dispensational view. Cf. also the standard dispensational theologies. This is published by Brethren Missionary Herald, Winona Lake, Ind.

Murray, J., "The Sanctity of the Moral Law," Collected Writings I, 193‑204. Also published as a pamphlet.

Rushdoony, R., Law and Liberty.


Old and New Covenants


Bahnsen, G., Theonomy in Christian Ethics (note also recent discussions of this in the Presbyterian Journal; also, see under Kline, below).

Barclay, W., The Old Law and the New Law (1972).

Davies, W. D., titles listed under Lesson 10.

Kline, M., titles listed under Lesson 9, especially By Oath and "The Intrusion and the Decalogue" in Structure.

     —, review of Bahnsen, Theonomy, Westminster Theological Journal, (Fall, 1978).

Murray, J., "The Attestation of Scripture," in Stonehouse, N., and Woolley, P., eds., The Infallible Word, 15‑23 (Matt. 5:17‑20).

     —, "The Covenant of Grace," pamphlet.

Rushdoony, R. J., Institutes of Biblical Law (reviewed by Frame in WTJ (Winter,


Stonehouse, N., "The Authority of the Old Testament and the Authority of Christ," in The Witness of Matthew and Mark to Christ, 188‑225 (more Matt. 5!).


Love, Law, Situation Ethics


Barnette, H., The New Theology and Morality (Westminster, 1967).

Cox, H., ed., The Situation Ethics Debate (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1968).

Curran, C., ed., Absolutes in Moral Theology? (Washington: Corpus, 1968).

Erickson, M., Relativism in Contemporary Christian Ethics.

Fletcher, J., Moral Responsibility (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1967).

            --, Situation Ethics (Phila.: Westminster Press, 1966).

Forshaw, D., "Situation Ethics?" Modern Churchman, NS, XI (July, 1968), 237‑245.

Frankena, W., "Love and Principle in Christian Ethics," in Plantinga, A., ed., Faith and Philosophy (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964)‑‑an excellent article, exposing the conceptual sloppiness of many who advocate ‑ and oppose ‑ "situation ethics".

Furnish, V. P., The Love Command in the New Testament (Abingdon, 1972).

Grounds, V., "The ‘New Morality'", HIS (May, 1967).

Guatafaon, J., "Context vs. Principles," Harvard Theological Review, 171-202.

Hildebrand, D. von, True Morality and its Counterfeits (N.Y.: McKay, 1955) ‑‑pre-Fletcher critique of "situation ethics," R.C.

Holmes, A., "New Commandment, New Morality‑‑What's the Difference?" Eternity, (Nov. 1967).

Lehmann, P., Ethics in a Christian Context (N.Y.: Harper, 1963)‑‑akin to Fletcher.

Lewis, C. S., The Four Loves (N.Y.: Harcourt, Brace, 1960).

Lunn, A., and Lean, G., The New Morality (London: Blandford, 1964).

Montgomery, J. W., "Wisdom, Love and Law," Suicide of Christian Theology (Minneapolis: Bethany Fellowship, 1970), 387‑465.

Oates, W., "New Morality: a Psychological and Theological Critique," Review and Expositor, LXIV, 285‑296.

Outka, G., and Ramsey, P., eds., Norm and Context in Christian Ethics (N.Y.: Scribner's, 1968).

Pike, J., Beyond the Law (1963).

     —, You and the New Morality (N.Y.: Harper, 1967)‑‑cases

Ramsey, P., Deeds and Rules in Christian Ethics (N.Y.: Scribner's, 1967).

Redding, D., The New Immorality (Revel!, 1967).

Robinson, J. A. T., Honest to God (London: SCM, 1963), 104‑121, esp.

Robinson, J. M., Christian Freedom in a Permissive Society (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1970).

Rodd, C. S., "Are the Ethics of Jesus Situation Ethics?" Expository Times, LXXIX (Mar., 1968), 167‑170.

Schrey, H., et al., The Biblical Doctrine of Justice and Love (London: SCM, 1955).

Shepherd, N., Morality: Old and New (pamphlet‑‑W.T.S., 1971).

Walker, B., The New Immorality (N.Y.: Doubleday, 1968).


Imprecatory Psalms


Adams, James E., War Songs of the Prince of Peace (Phillipsburg: P&R, 1991).

Archer, G., "The Imprecatory Psalms," in A Survey of Old Testament Introduction. Daane, J., "Christian Ethics and the Doctrine of Election," Reformed Journal, IV, 2.

Greene, W. B., "Ethics of the Old Testament," Princeton Theological Review, XXVII.

Smedes, L., Love Within Limits (I Cor. 13) (1978).

Vos, J., "The Ethical Problem of the Imprecatory Psalms," Westminster Theological Journal, IV (1942).





Bahnsen, G., By This Standard (Tyler, Tx.: ICE, 1985). A more

            popular presentation of the argument of his Theonomy

            in Christian Ethics, dealing with some common objections.

            ‑‑, et al., The Law, the Gospel, and the Modern

            Christian (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1993). 14.40. 416.


            ‑‑, No Other Standard: Theonomy and Its Critics

            (Tyler: ICE, 1991). 345. p. Bahnsen's reply, mainly to Godfrey/Barker.

            --, Theonomy in Christian Ethics: Expanded Edition

            (Phillipsburg, Presbyterian and Reformed, 1984). Not

            really much "expansion" here; just an additional

            preface with replies to critics.

Barker, Will, and Godfrey, W. Robert, ed., Theonomy: A

            Reformed Critique (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1990).

            413. p.

Chilton, D., Paradise Restored (Tyler, TX.: Reconstruction Press,

            1985). Eschatology. Followed up by Days of Vengeance,

            his commentary on Revelation.

DeMar, Gary, The Debate Over Christian Reconstruction (Atlanta:

            American Vision Press, 1988). 6.70. 284. p.

Gentry, Kenneth, God's Law in the Modern World (Phillipsburg:

            P&R, 1993). 81. P.

House, Wayne, and Ice, Thomas, Dominion Theology: Blessing or

            Curse? (Portland: Multnomah, 1988). 460. h.

Jordan, James, The Death Penalty in the Mosaic Law (Tyler:

            Biblical Horizons, 1988). 55. p.

--, The Law of the Covenant (Tyler, TX.: ICE, 1984),

            preface by John Frame. Jordan now thinks this book was

            "too theonomic." He now maintains that any use of the

            OT law must take into account the great difference

            brought about by the incarnation and redemptive work

            of Christ. He prefers not to be called a "theonomist"

            or even a "Christian reconstructionist," but does

            seek to make much use of the OT law. In my judgment

            there is not much difference between his position now and

            that of Poythress (below).

            ‑‑, Reconsidering the Mosaic Law: Some Reflections

            (Tyler: Biblical Horizons, 1988). 23.

            ‑‑, Sabbath Breaking and the Death Penalty (Tyler:

            Geneva Ministries, 1986). 99. p.

            ‑‑, Touch Not, Taste Not: The Mosaic Dietary Laws in

            New Covenant Perspective (Privately Published)

            2 vols. Probably 300+ pages. p.

Leithart, Peter, Did Plato Read Moses? Middle Grace and Moral Consensus (Niceville, FL: Biblical Horizons, 1995). 20. P.

            ‑‑, and DeMar, Gary, The Legacy of Hatred Continues

            (Tyler: ICE, 1989). 68. p.

            --, Natural Law: a Reformed Critique (Niceville, FL: Biblical Horizons, 1996). 29. p. 3 copies. 

            ‑‑, and DeMar, Gary, The Reduction of Christianity

            (Atlanta: American Vision, 1988). 403. p. 

North, Gary, ed., Theonomy: An Informed Response  (Tyler: ICE,

            1991). 16.95. 393. h.

            ‑‑, Tools of Dominion (Tyler: ICE, 1990). 29.95. 1287. h.

Poythress, V., The Shadow of Christ in the Law of Moses (Brentwood, Tenn.: Wohlgemuth and Hyatt, 1991). 422. P. Excellent applications of the Decalogue, with a concluding critique of theonomy.

Rushdoony, Rousas J., The Institutes of Biblical Law (NP: Craig Press,

            1973). 890. h. Reviewed by Frame in WTJ 38:2 (Winter, 1976), 195-217.

            --, Law and Liberty (NP: Craig Press, 1971). 2.50. 152. P.

            --, Law and Society (Vallecito: Ross House, 1982). 752. H. This is called "volume 2" of the Institutes of Biblical Law, but it is very different. Volume 1 is a fairly systematic application of the ten commandments. Volume 2 is a collection of Rushdoony's essays on various subjects.

            --, Salvation and Godly Rule (Vallecito: Ross House, 1983). 512. H.

Sandlin, Andrew, ed., A Comprehensive Faith (San Jose: Friends of Chalcedon,

            1996). 224. h. Festschrift for Rushdoony. Frame wrote the Foreword.

Sutton, Ray, That You May Prosper (Tyler, Tx.: ICE, 1987).

            Presents the Tyler model, the "five point covenant


Thoburn, Robert, The Christian and Politics (Tyler: Thoburn Press,

            1984). 4.95. 198. p.


Ethics and Free Will


Austin, J., "Ifs and Cans," Proceedings of the British Academy, XLII (1956).

Braithewaite, R., "Indeterminacy and Indeterminism," Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume X, 135‑196. Note other contributions, also.

Campbell, C. A., In Defense of Free Will.

Hobart, R. E., "Free Will as Involving Determinism and as Inconceivable Without It," Mind, XLIII, 169 (Jan. 1934), 1‑27. Also in various anthologies.

Hook, S., ed., Determinism and Freedom (N.Y.: Collier, 1961)‑‑note Edwards' "Hard and Soft Determinism" among other articles.

Lewis, H. D., Freedom and History (London: Allen and Unwin, 1962).

Mabbott, J. D., "Freewill and Punishment," in Lewis, H. D., ed., Contemporary British Philosophy (London: Allen and Unwin, 1956), 287‑310.

Munitz, M., ed., A Modern Introduction To Ethics (Glencoe: Free Press, 1958)­ contains a number of important articles on this subject.

Nowell‑Smith, P., "Determinists and Libertarians," Mind, LXIII (July, 1954), 317‑337, Ethics.

Ryle, G., The Concept of Mind (1949).

University of California Associates, "The Freedom of the Will," in Feigl, M., and Sellars, W., eds., Readings In Philosophical Analysis (N.Y., 1949); also in Munitz, M., A Modern Introduction to Ethics (Glencoe, 1958), 356‑374.

Notice also sections in anthologies (Sellars and Hospers, Readings in Ethical Theory, e.g.), general works on ethics (Nowell-Smith, Stevenson, Rosa, Moore, Schlick, Sidgwick, Bradley, Warnock; see Lesson 5).




Ames, W., Of Conscience and the Cases Thereof.

Berkouwer, G. C., Man, the Image of God (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1962).

     —, Sin (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1971).

O'Donnell, G., Psychology in a Christian Perspective (unpublished syllabus, Dordt College, 1972)‑‑section on "conscience formation."

Pierce, C. A., Conscience in the New Testament (London, 1955).

Rashdall, H., Conscience and Christ.

Wells, P., "Conscience: Good, Bad and Weak," Banner of Truth (Sept., 1972),




Introduction to the Decalogue


Kline, M., Treaty of the Great King (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1963).

     —, The Structure of Biblical Authority (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1972).

Stamm, J. J., and Andrew, M. E., The Ten Commandments in Recent Research (Napierville, Ill.: Allenson, 1967).

Wallace, R., The Ten Commandments: A Study of Ethical Freedom (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1965).

Wickler, W., The Biology of the Ten Commandments (McGraw-Hill, 1972)‑‑this one looks amusing and could possibly be more; the publisher says that it shows how the moral law is rooted in man's biological needs.


First Commandment:


A. The Occult

Glendenning, O., The World of the Witches (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press,


Koch, K., Between Christ and Satan (Baden: Evangelization Publ., 1967).

     —, Christian Counseling and Occultism (Grand Rapids: Kregel, 1965).

Montgomery, J. W., Principalities and Powers (Bethany, 1973).

North, G., None Dare Call It Witchcraft (Arlington House, 1976).

            --, Unholy Spirits (Ft. Worth: Dominion Press, 1986).

Pike, J., and Kennedy, D., The Other Side (Garden City: Doubleday, 1968).

Unger, M., Biblical Demonology (Scripture Press, 1970).

     —, The Haunting of Bishop Pike (Wheaton: Tyndale, 1971).

     —, Demons in the World Today (Wheaton: Tyndale, 1171).

Williams, C., Witchcraft (Cleveland: World Publ. Co., 1959).


B. Secret Societies


Baird, G., The Testimony of a Thrity-Second Degree Mason.

Blanchard, C., Modern Secret Societies (Chicago: National Christian Assn.,


Chase, Digest on Masonic Law.

Claudy, C., Introduction to Free Masonry.

Coil, E., The Relation of the Liberal Churches and the Fraternal Orders (Marietta, Ohio: First Unitarian Society).

Dierks, T., Christianity vs. Freemasonry (St. Louis: Concordia, 1932).

Graebner, T., A Treatise on Freemasonry (St. Louis: Concordia, 1914).

Hannah, W., Darkness Visible (Augustine Press).

Haywood, H., The Great Teachings of Masonry.

Lennhoff, E., The Freemasons (London: Methuen, 1934).

Loveless, W., The Christian and Secret Societies. Little Masonic Library (Richmond: Macoy, 1946).

Mackey, A., Encyclopedia of Freemasonry; cf. also his Lexicon of Freemasonry; Manual of the Lodge; The Book of the Chapter; A Textbook of Masonic Jurisprudence; Cryptic Masonry; The Symbolism of Masonry; The Masonic Ritualist; The Mystic Tie. Masonry in the Light of the Bible (Concordia).

McClain, A., Freemasonry and Christianity (Winona Lake: Brethren Missionary Herald, 1921)‑pamphlet.

Newton, J. F., The Religion of Masonry.

Orthodox Presbyterian Church: reports of various kinds on Masonry are to be found in the minutes of the 7th 9th, 15th, 16th and 17th General Assemblies. The Report to the 9th Assembly is published as a pamphlet, Christ or the Lodge?, available from the O. P. Committee on Christian Education.

Pierson, A., Traditions, Origin and Early History of Freemasonry.

Pike, A., Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Freemasons (Charleston: Jenkins).

Tsoukalas, Steven, Masonic Rites and Wrongs (Phillipsburg: P&R, 1995).

Ward, J., Freemasonry and the Ancient Gods.

     —, Freemasonry: Its Aims and Ideals.

Webb, T., Masonic Monitor.


C. Secular Schools


Clark, G., A Christian Philosophy of Education (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1946).

De Graaff, A., The Educational Ministry of the Church H (Nutley: Craig Press,


De Jong, N., Education in the Truth (Presbyterian and Reformed, 1969). ‑This and De Graaff's book contain extensive bibliographies.

Rushdoony, R. J., Intellectual Schizophrenia (Phila: Presbyterian and Reformed, 1961).

     —, The Messianic Character of American Education (Phila: Presbyterian & Reformed, 1963).

Van Til, C., Common Grace (Phila.: Pres. & Reformed, 1947).

     —, The Dilemma of Education (Phila.: Pres. & Reformed, 1956).




Adams, James E., War Songs of the Prince of Peace: Lessons From the Imprecatory Psalms (Phillipsburg: P&R, 1991).

The Biblical Doctrine of Worship (NP: Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America, 1974). 395. P. Pro-exclusive Psalmody, anti-instruments.

Binder, A., Biblical Chant (N.Y.: Philosophical Library, 1959).

Bushell, Michael, The Songs of Zion (Pittsburgh: Crown and Covenant Publications, 1980). The best recent defense of exclusive Psalmody.

Carson, Donald, ed., Worship: Adoration and Action (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1993). Includes article by Ed Clowney.

Davies, Horton, The Worship of the English Puritans (Morgan, PA: Soli Deo Gloria Publications, 1948, 1997). 304. P.

Dawn, Marva, Reaching Out Without Dumbing Down (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995). My chief opponent in my CWM book.

Delling, Gerhard, Worship in the New Testament (Phila.: Westminster Press, 1962). Important scholarly work.

Duguid, Iain, Untitled Ms. On Worship in the Old Testament (NPI). 156. P.

Eire, Carlos M. N., War Against the Idols (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1986, 1990). 325. P. Historical study.

Frame, John, Contemporary Worship Music: a Biblical Defense (Phillipsburg: P&R, 1997). Although this book (uncharacteristically for me) addresses a "hot button" issue, I tried to write it as a serious theological discussion, relating it to some concerns about theological method and to some broader issues such as the relation of Scripture to tradition.

            --, Worship in Spirit and Truth (Phillipsburg: P&R, 1996). Includes additional bibliography.

Frazer, F. D., "Psalms, Hymns and Spiritual Songs," Blue Banner Faith and Life,

XXII, i (1967), 23-26.

Gelineau, J., The Psalms (London: Fortuna, 1966).

Gillespie, George, A Dispute Against the English Popish Ceremonies (Dallas:

Naphtali Press, 1993). Classical statement of the Scottish Presbyterian

view of the regulative principle.

Girardeau, John, Instrumental Music in Public Worship (Havertown: New Covenant Publication Society, 1983). Opposes the use of instruments in worship.

Gore, Ralph, The Pursuit of Plainness, Th. M. Thesis, WTS/Phila. Critique of the Puritan regulative principle.

Horton, Michael, In the Face of God (Dallas: Word, 1996). Too traditionalist, and in my opinion he often oversimplifies biblical principles. But World rated it among the 100 most important books of the twentieth-century, alongside Faulkner and Churchill.

Johnson, Terry L., Leading in Worship (Oak Ridge, TN: The Covenant Foundation, 1996). 185. H. Historical sources for traditional liturgy. Critical of Frame.

Jordan, James, Liturgical Nestorianism (Niceville, FL: Transfiguration Press, 1994). Critique of the traditional view of the regulative principle by way of a review of Smith and Lachman, Worship in the Presence of God.

            --, The Liturgy Trap: The Bible Versus Mere Tradition in Worship (Niceville, FL: Transfiguration Press, 1994). Criticizes high church "liturgical renewal" movement.

            --, Theses on Worship (Niceville: Transfiguration Press, 1994). Jordan's own approach.

Martin, Ralph P., The Worship of God (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1982). 5.72. 237. P.

Maxwell, William, An Outline of Christian Worship (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1936). Historical study, listing many representative liturgies.

Meyers, Jeffrey, Vere Homo: The Case For Pictures of the Lord Jesus Christ (Niceville, FL: Biblical Horizons, May, 1993). Good summary of the arguments on both sides, sound conclusions in my view.

McCann, J. Clinton, A Theological Introduction to the Book of Psalms (Nashville: Abingdon, 1993). Says the Psalter was not collected as a hymnbook, but as a book for meditation.

McNaugher, J., ed., The Psalms in Worship (Pittsburgh: United Pres. Church,


Miller, Steve, The Contemporary Christian Music Debate (Wheaton: Tyndale, 1993). 8.19. 261. P.

Morey, R. A., An Examination of Exclusive Psalmody (NPD). 17. P.

            --, Worship is All of Life (Camp Hill: Christian Publications, 1984).

Murray, J., "Worship," in Collected Writings I, 165-168.

Old, Hughes Oliphant, Worship (Richmond: John Knox, 1984). Highly regarded

historical study.

Orthodox Presbyterian Church: Reports to 13th and 14th General Assemblies, published in Minutes of those Assemblies. The minority report by John Murray and W. Young is exceptionally well-written and cogently argued, weak mainly in its initial assumption that "song" is an independent "element" of worship requiring an independent Scriptural foundation.

Patterson, J., The Praises of Israel (N.Y.: Scribner's, 1950).

Poythress, Vern, "Ezra 3, Union With Christ, and Exclusive Psalmody,"

Westminster Theological Journal 37:1 (Fall, 1974), 74-94, and 37:2 (Winter, 1975), 218-35. Interesting biblico-theological study. His approach is similar to mine.

Pribble, Stephen, "The Regulative Principle and Singing in Worship," Presbyterian Advocate (Nov., Dec., 1993), 25-30. Argues that "psalm" in Scripture does not necessarily refer to the Book of Psalms.

Rayburn, Robert, O Come, Let Us Worship (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1980).

"Report of the Committee on Song in the Public Worship of God," in the Minutes of the Fourteenth General Assembly of the Orthodox Presbyterian Church, 1947. Recently republished by Smith and Lachman in their Worship in the Presence of God, q.v. The majority report allows the use of instruments and extra-biblical hymns.

Smith, Frank, and Lachman, David, Worship in the Presence of God (Greenville, SC: Greenville Presbyterian Theological Seminary Press, 1992). Exclusive psalmody, opposition to instruments. Not nearly as good as Bushell, but gives you a flavor of the types of arguments generally used.

Vos, J., "Spiritual Songs for Praising God," Blue Banner Faith and Life, XXIII, 1 (1968), 3f.

Webber, Robert, Worship Is a Verb (Waco: Word, 1987).

            --, Worship Old and New (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1982). Webber advocates the use of traditional liturgies. Recently I think he has become more eclectic.

Williamson, G. I., The Singing of Psalms in the Worship of God (Scottish

Reformed Fellowship)‑pamphlet.

Wilson, J., An Introduction to Church Music (Chicago: Moody, 1965).





Bacchiocchi, Samuele, Divine Rest For Human Restlessness (Rome:


            --, From Sabbath to Sunday (Rome: The

            Pontifical Gregorian University Press, 1977).

            --, The Sabbath in the New Testament (Berrien Springs,

            Mich.: Biblical Perspectives, 1985). Bacchiocchi is

            an Italian Seventh-Day Adventist scholar who earned his

            doctorate at the Pontifical University of Rome. First

            non-Catholic to do so.

Berkouwer, G., The Providence of God (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1952), 61-66.

Calvin, J., Commentary on Genesis (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1948), 103-107.

     —, Institutes (Phila.: Westminster Press, 1360), II/8, 28-34.

Carson, D. A., ed., From Sabbath to Lord's Day (Grand Rapids:

            1982). Essays arguing that the Sabbath of the OT is replaced

            by a "Lord's Day" distinctive to the New Covenant, which

            requires worship on the first day of the week but does not

            require any cessation of labor.

Chantry, Walter, Call the Sabbath a Delight (Edinburgh: Banner of Truth, 1991). 4.75. 112. P. Popular Sabbatarian teaching.

Cotton, P., From Sabbath to Sunday (Bethlehem, Pa.: Times Pub. Co., 1933).

Dabney, R., Discussions (London: Banner of Truth, 1967), I, 496-550, II, 594-


Dawn, Marva J., Keeping the Sabbath Wholly (Grand Rapids:

            Eerdmans, 1989). 217. p.

De Graaff, A., "Towards a Christian Sunday," The Guide, XVII (Feb., 1969), 695.

Dennison, James T., The Market Day of the Soul (Lanham: UPA, 1983). 174. P.

Everts, W., The Sabbath (N.Y.: Treat, 1885).

Fairbairn, P., The Typology of Scripture (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, n.d.) I, 255-263, II, 107-131, 377-384, 447-459.

Friedman, T., "The Sabbath: Anticipation of Redemption," Judaism (Fall, 1967), 443-452.

Gaffin, Richard, Calvin and the Sabbath (Christian Focus, 2000).

             —, "The Sabbath‑A Creation Ordinance and Sign of the Christian Hope,"

Presbyterian Guardian (May, 1971), 40‑42.

            —, Davis, D. C., Knight, G., Lewis, R., Mitchell, J., "Report of the Committee on Sabbath Matters" in Minutes of the 40th General Assembly, Orthodox Pres. Church. Also published in the Agenda for the 39th General Assembly.

Hodge, A. A., The Day Changed and the Sabbath Preserved (Phila.: OPC, n.d.)


Hodgkins, W., Sunday: Christian and Social Significance (London: Indep. Press,


Jewett, Paul K., The Lord's Day (Grand Rapids: 1971). Anti-


Jordan, James, Sabbath Breaking and the Death Penalty (Tyler,

            TX: Geneva Ministries, 1986).

Lee, Francis Nigel, The Covenantal Sabbath (London: Lord's Day Observance Society, 1966). 343. H.

            --, The Sabbath in the Bible (London: Lord's Day Observance Society, ND). 1s. 23. P.

Leitch, J., "Lord Also of the Sabbath," Scottish Journal of Theology, XIX (1966),


Mahaffey, F., Articles in Presbyterian Guardian (1963), 35-37, 51-52, 90-91.

Milligan, U., The Decalogue and the Lord's Day (London: Blackwood, 1866).

Mooney, T., "The Christian Sabbath," Biblical Theology, XVIII (Sept., 1968), 57-


Murray, J., Collected Writtings I, 205-228. Two of these articles, "The Pattern of

the Lord's Day" and "The Sabbath Institution" are published separately as

pamphlets by the Lord's Day Obs. Society, London.

—, Kromminga, D., Pieters, A., "Symposium on the Sabbath," Calvin

Forum, 1941

Orr, J., The Sabbath (Edinburgh: Gommell, 1886).

Pink, A., The Christian Sabbath (York, Pa.: Bible Truth Deport, n.d.).

Pipa, Joseph, The Lord's Day (1997). Sabbatarian.

Porter, H., The Day of Light (Greenwich: Seabury, 1950).

Ratzlaff, Dale, Sabbath in Crisis (Applegate, CA:

            Life Assurance Ministries, 1989). 345. p.

Rordorf, Wilby, Sunday (Phila.: Westminster Press, 1968).

Runia, K., and Deenick, J., Discussion Around the Sabbath (Reprint of articles in Sword

and Trowel, Oct. 1965‑June 1966).

Ryle, J. C., The Lord's Day or The Christian Sabbath (London: Lord's Day Observance Society, nd). 23. P.

Segal, M. H., "The Religion of Israel Before Sinai," Jewish Quarterly Review, LIII (l961), 41-68; LIII (1962-63), 226-256.

Smith, S., "The Christian Use of Sunday," Biblical Theology, XVIII (Sept., 1968), 66-71.

Unger, M., "The Significance of the Sabbath," Bibliotheca Sacra, (1966), 53-59.

Van Groningen, G., "The Sabbath Question," Torch and Trumpet, XVIII, (Mar., 1968), 16-18, (Apr., 1968), 8-10.

     —, ed., The Sabbath-Sunday Problem (Geelong: Hilltop Press, 1968).

Ward, H., Space Age Sunday (N.Y.:Macmillan, 1960).

Warfield, B. B., The Foundations of the Sabbath in the Word of God (London:

Lord's Day Observance Society, ND), also in Selected Shorter Writings (Nutley: Pres. and Reformed, 1970), 308-324.




Social Ethics, General


Anderson, J. B., Between Two Worlds (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1970).

Armerding, C., ed., Evangelicals and Liberation (Presbyterian and Reformed, 1977). Harvie Conn has an article in here. Compare with more standard "theologies of liberation."

Aulen, G., Church, Law and Society (N.Y.: Scribner's, 1948).

Bennett, J., Christian Ethics and Social Policy.

     —, ed., Christian Social Ethics in a Changing World (N.Y.: Association, 1966).

     —, Social Salvation, (N.Y.: Scribner's, 1935).

Blaiklock, E., The Christian in Pagan Society (London: Tyndale, 1951).

Brunner, E., Justice and the Social Order (London: Lutterworth, 1945).

Collins, G., ed., Our Society in Turmoil (Creation House, 1970).

Forell, G. W., ed., Christian Social Teaching (Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor, 1966).

Gilson, E., ed., The Church Speaks to the Modern World (Leo XIII), (Garden City: Image, 1957).

Grounds, V., Evangelical and Social Responsibility (Scottsdale, Pa.).

Gustafson, J., Christian Ethics and the Community (Pilgrim, 1971).

Hard, T., "Missions and the Cultural Mandate," Presbyterian Guardian (Nov. 1970), 85‑87.

Henry, C. F. H., Aspects of Christian Social Ethics (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964).

     —, Evangelicals at the Brink of Crisis (Waco: Word Books, 1967).

     —, A Plea for Evangelical Demonstration (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1971).

     —, The Uneasy Conscience of Modern Fundamentalism (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1947).

Hiltner, S., Theological Dynamics.

Hutchinson, J. A., Christian Faith and Social Action (N.Y.: Scribner's, 1953).

Inside (this magazine has run several special issues on problems of social ethics‑some Reformed contributions).

Johnson, J. T., A Society Ordained by God (N.Y.: Abingdon, 1970).

Keeling, M., Morals in a Free Society (London: SCM, 1967).

Kuyper, A., Lectures on Calvinism (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1931).

Maritain, K., Freedom in the Modern World.

     —, The Person and the Common Good (N.Y.: Scribner, 1947).

     —, The Rights of Man and Natural Law.

     —, Some Reflections on Culture and Liberty (R.C.).

Maston, T. B., Christianity and World Issues (N.Y.: Macmillan, 1957).

Maury, P., Politics and Evangelism (Doubleday, 1959).

Moberg, D., Inasmuch: Christian Social Responsibility in the Twentieth Century (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1965).

Muelder, W., Moral Law in Christian Social Ethics (Knox, 1966).

     —, Foundations of the Responsible Society (N.Y.: Abingdon, 1959).

Murray, J., "The Christian World Order," Collected Writings I, 356‑366.

Niebohr, H. R., Christ and Culture (N.Y., 1951).

Niebuhr, R., Moral Man and Immoral Society (N.Y., 1932).

The Other Side (politically liberal evangelical publication).

Rauschenbusch, W., Christianity and the Social Crisis (N.Y., 1909).

     —, Christianizing the Social Order (N.Y., 1912).

     —, The Righteousness of the Kingdom (republication, Abingdon, 1968).

     —, Theology for the Social Gospel (1917). These are classics of the older liberal "social gospel."

Sanders, R., Radical Voices in the Wilderness (Waco: Word Books, 1970)‑social ethics of the prophets.

Schweitzer, A., Civilization and Ethics.

Sellars, J., Public Ethics (N.Y.: Harper, 1970).

Sojourners, (formerly Post-American)‑‑much good biblical material in this publication. Similar to The Other Side‑perhaps a bit more radically pacifist.

Temple, W., Christianity and the Social Order (London, 1942).

Troeltsch, E., The Social Teaching of the Christian Churches (N.Y., 1949).

Vatican Council II, Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World, in Abbott, W., and Gallagher, I., eds., The Documents of Vatican II (N.Y.: Guild Press, 1966).

Winter, G., Elements for a Social Ethic (N.Y.: Macmillan, 1966).

     —, ed., Social Ethics (N.Y.: Harper, 1968).

Wirt, S., The Social Conscience of the Evangelical (N.Y.: Harper, 1968).

Wright, G. E., The Biblical Doctrine of Man in Society (London, 1954).

Yoder, J. H., The Politics of Jesus (Eerdmans, 1972)‑anabaptist.



The State, Politics


Bandow, Doug, Beyond Good Intentions: A Biblical View of

            Politics (Westchester: Crossway, 1988). 271. p.

Burnham, James, Suicide of the West (New Rochelle: Arlington House, 1964). 6.95. 312. H.

Clowney, Edmund P., "The Politics of the Kingdom," WTJ 41:2 (Spring, 1979), 291-310.

DeMar, Gary, Ruler of the Nations: Biblical Principles

            For Government (theonomic) (Ft. Worth: Dominion

            Press, 1987). DeMar also has written three volumes

            on God and Government for use in Christian schools.

Dooyeweerd, H., The Christian Idea of the State (Nutley:

            Craig Press, 1968). 1.00. 51. p.

--, A Christian Theory of Social Institutions

            (La Jolla, CA.: Herman Dooyeweerd Foundation, 1986). 120.

Ellul, Jacques, The Meaning of the City (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1970). 5.95. 209. H.

Falling, Billy, The Political Mission of the Church (NP, ND).

            181. p. Foreword by JF. Local pastor, seeking to get churches to be more "politically active."

Frame, John M., "Toward a Theology of the State," WTJ 51 (1989), 199-226.

Goudzwaard, Bob, A Christian Political Option (Toronto:

            Wedge, 1972). 66. p. Very liberal Dooyeweerdianism.

Grant, George, The Changing of the Guard: Biblical Principles

            For Political Action (Ft. Worth: Dominion Press, 1987).


Hall, David, Savior or Servant (Oak Ridge, TN: The Kuyper Institute,

            1996). 399. p. Excellent Reformed rethinking of these issues.

Hobbes, Thomas, Leviathan (NY: Liberal Arts Press, 1958). 1.00. 298. P.

Machiavelli, Niccolo, The Prince and The Discourses (NY: Modern Library, 1950). .50. 540. P.

Maritain, Jacques, Man and the State (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago

            Press, 1951). 219. p. Twentieth Century Roman Catholic.

McCarthy, R., et al., Society, State, and Schools: A Case

            for Structural and Confessional Pluralism (Grand

            Rapids: Eerdmans, 1981). Dooyeweerdian.

Mill, John Stuart, On Liberty (NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1947). 118. P.

            --, Utilitarianism, Liberty, and Representative Government (NY: Dutton, 1951). 532. H.

Montgomery, John W., Human Rights and Human Dignity (Grand

            Rapids: Zondervan, 1986).

Nash, Ronald H., Freedom, Justice and the State (Washington: University Press of America, 1980). 231. P.

North, Gary,   Political Polytheism (Tyler: ICE, 1989). 771. h. Theonomic.

Olasky, Marvin, et al., Freedom, Justice, and Hope (Westchester:.Crossway,          1988). p.

Rousseau, Jean Jacques, The Social Contract and Discourses (NY: Dutton, 1950). 330. H.

Runner, H. Evan, Scriptural Religion and Political Task

            (Toronto: Wedge, 1974). 123. p. Dooyeweerdian.

Rushdoony, R. J.,  Christianity and the State (Vallecito, CA:

            Ross House, 1986). Theonomic.

            --, The Foundations of Social Order (NP: P&R, 1968). 232. H.

            --, This Independent Republic (Nutley: Craig Press, 1964). 3.95. 172. H.

            --, The Nature of the American System (Nutley: Craig Press, 1965). 3.75. 181. H.

            --, Politics of Guilt and Pity (Nutley: Craig Press,

            1970). 6.50. 371. h.

Rutherford, Samuel, Lex, Rex (Harrisonville, Va.: Sprinkle

            Publications, 1980). Older work, recently republished.

            Very important in the history of reformed thinking

            about politics.

Schaeffer, F., A Christian Manifesto (Westchester, Ill.:

            Crossway Books, 1981).

Skillen, James, Christians Organizing for Political Service

            (Washington: Association for Public Justice Education

            Fund, 1980). 113. p.

            ‑‑, ed., Confessing Christ and Doing Politics

            (Washington: Association for Public Justice Education

            Fund, 1981). 103. p. Skillen follows Dooyeweerd and "principled     pluralism."

Smith, Gary Scott, ed., God and Politics (Phillipsburg: P&R,

1989). 300. p. Essays representing theonomy, Christian America, national covenant, and principled pluralism.

            Papers delivered at a conference at Geneva College

            on the Biblical role of civil government.

Taylor, E. L. Hebden, The Christian Philosophy of Law,

            Politics and the State (Nutley: Craig Press, 1967).

            653. h.

            --, The New Legality (Phila.: P&R, 1967). 1.00. 55. P.

Thoburn, Robert, The Christian and Politics (Tyler: Thoburn Press,

            1984). 4.95. 198. p.

Van Riessen, Hendrik, The Society of the Future (Phila:

            P&R, 1952). 317. h. Conservative Dooyeweerdian.

Van Til, L. John, Liberty of Conscience: The History of a Puritan Idea (NP: Craig Press, 1972). 3.95. 192. P.

Weldon, T. D., The Vocabulary of Politics (Baltimore: Penguin, 1953, 1955). 200. P. Philosophical.

Whitehead, John, The Second American Revolution (Elgin, Ill.:

            David C. Cook, 1982).

            --, The Separation Illusion (Milford, Mi.: Mott Media,

            1977). First Amendment.

Wolterstorff, N., Until Justice and Peace Embrace (Grand

            Rapids: Eerdmans, 1983). Calvin College philosopher,

            somewhat to the left of the evangelical center.

Woolley, Paul, Family, State, and Church (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1965). 1.00. 48. P. Finds it very easy to distinguish the proper sphere of each.

Yoder, John Howard, The Politics of Jesus (Grand Rapids:

            Eerdmans, 1972). 3.95. 260. p. Anabaptist.




Barrs, Jerram, Who Are the Peacemakers? (Westchester: Crossway, 1983). 2.95. 64. P.

Boettner, L., The Christian Attitude Toward War (Phillipsburg:

            Presbyterian and Reformed, 1985). Originally published

            1940. "Just war."

Caldicott, Helen, Missile Envy: The Arms Race and Nuclear

            War (NY: Bantam, 1986). 346. p. Secular liberal position.

Clouse, Robert G., ed., War: Four Christian Views (Downers

            Grove, IVP, 1981). Nonresistance (Herman Hoyt),

            Christian Pacifism (Myron Augsburger), Just War (Arthur

            Holmes), Crusade or Preventive War (Harold O. J. Brown).

Craigie, Peter C., The Problem of War in the Old Testament (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1978). 3.95. 125. P.

Evans, G. Russell, and Singer, C. Gregg, The Church and the Sword (Houston: St. Thomas Press, 1982). 5.69. 128. P.

Holmes, Arthur, ed., War and Christian Ethics (Grand Rapids:

            Baker, 1975). Historical readings.

Morey, Robert A., When Is It Right to Fight? (Minneapolis:

            Bethany House, 1985). "Just war." Popular.

Sider, Ronald J., Christ and Violence (Scottsdale: Herald Press, 1979). 108. P.

--,  and Taylor, Richard K., Nuclear Holocaust

            And Christian Hope (N. Y.: Paulist Press, 1982).

            Anabaptist, pacifist.

Wallis, Jim, ed., Peacemakers (San Francisco: Harper, 1983). 5.95. 156.

            --, Waging Peace (San Francisco: Harper, 1982). 4.95. 304. P. Pacifist.



Medical Ethics, including Euthanasia, Termination of Care


See also Abortion and the bibliography in Frame's Medical Ethics. Thanks to Dan Deaton for many of the titles and comments below.


Alexander, Leo, "Medical Science Under Dictatorship," The New England Journal of Medicine 241 (July 14, 1949), 39-47. What happens when medicine is severed from absolute norms.

Anderson, Norman, Issues of Life and Death (Downers Grove, IVP: 1977). 2.95. 130. P.

Beauchamp, Tom, and Childress, James F., Principles of Biomedical Ethics (NY: Oxford Univ. Press, 1993). Modern Medicine's "Bible" on bioethics.

Beckwith, Francis, and Geisler, Norman, Matters of Life and Death (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1991).

Bouma, Hessel, et al., Christian Faith, Health and Medical Practice (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1989). Product of the "Calvin Center." Often unbiblical. See Frame's review in Christian Renewal (June 18, 1990), 16-17, and in Supplementary Documents for ST 702.

Cameron, Nigel M. de S., The New Medicine (Wheaton: Crossway, 1991). On the abandonment of Hippocratic ethics.

Childress, James F., Priorities in Biomedical Ethics (Phila.:

            Westminster Press, 1981). 143. p.

Duncan, A. S., et al., ed., Dictionary of Medical Ethics

            (NY: Crossroad, 1981). 24.50. 459. h.

Feinberg, John S., and Paul D., Ethics for a Brave New World (Wheaton: Crossway, 1993).

Frame, John, Medical Ethics (Phillipsburg: P&R, 1988). 132. p.

Kilner, John F., Life on the Line (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1992). Gordon-Conwell grad and Harvard Ph. D. interacts with modern ethical theorists from a Christian perspective. More difficult.

            --, Who Lives, Who Dies? (New Haven, Yale Univ. Press, 1990). On allocation of scarce resources. Comprehensive, technical.

Lammers, Stephen E., and Verhey, Allen, eds., On Moral Medicine (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1987). 657. Essays from different perspectives.

Moreland, J. P., and Geisler, Norman, The Life and Death

            Debate (NY: Praeger, 1990). 174. p.

Orr, Robert D., et al., Life and Death Decisions (Colorado Springs, Navpress, 1990).

Payne, Franklin E., Biblical/Medical Ethics (Milford, MI: Mott

            Media, 1985). 267. h.

            ‑‑, Making Biblical Decisions (Escondido: Hosanna House,

            1989). 178. p. Payne is editor of the Journal of Biblical Ethics in Medicine. He and the others in this movement are very close to Jay Adams and the nouthetic counseling movement.

Ramsey, Paul, Ethics at the Edges of Life (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1978). Ramsey was a seminal thinker in this field. His books are always of interest, although they are becoming scientifically out of date.

            --, Fabricated Man (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1970).

            --, On In-Vitro Fertilization (Chicago: Americans United for Life, 1978).

            --, The Ethics of Fetal Research (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1975).

            --, The Patient as Person (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1970).

Reiser, Stanley Joel, Dyck, Arthur J., and Curran, William J., Ethics in Medicine (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1977). Articles of historical importance.

Smith, F. LaGard, When Choice Becomes God (Eugene, OR: Harvest House, 1990). Lawyer shows the fallacy of "choice" as an absolute.

Tada, Joni Eareckson, When is it Right to Die? (San Francisco:

            Harper, 1992). 15.99. 189. h.

Womer, Jan L., Morality and Ethics in Early Christianity (Phila.: Fortress Press, 1987). Readings from church history.

Wennberg, Robert N., Terminal Choices (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1989). Thought-provoking; not always right.




See also titles on Medical Ethics

Bajema, Clifford, Abortion and the Meaning of Personhood

            (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1974).

Callahan, Daniel, Abortion: Law, Choice and Morality (NY: Macmillan, 1970). 4.95. 524. P.

Davis, John Jefferson, Abortion and the Christian (Phillipsburg:

            Presbyterian and Reformed, 1984).

Ganz, Richard, ed., Thou Shalt Not Kill (New Rochelle:

            Arlington House, 1978). 8.95. 200. h.

Gardner, R. F. R., Abortion: The Personal Dilemma (Exeter:

            Paternoster Press, 1972). L1.25. 288. p. Middle of the road. Reviewed by Frame in WTJ 35:2 (Winter, 1973): 234-237.

Gentry, Kenneth L., The Christian Case Against Abortion, Journal of Christian Reconstruction 8:2. 1983.

Grant, George, Grand Illusions: The Legacy of Planned Parenthood

            (Brentwood: Wohlgemuth and Hyatt, 1988). 354. p.

Harrison, Beverly W., Our Right to Choose (Boston: Beacon Press, 1983). 334. P. Feminist, pro-choice.

Koop, C. Everett, The Right to Live; The Right to Die (Wheaton: Tyndale, 1976). 2.95. 124. P.

Kreeft, Peter, The Unaborted Socrates (Downers Grove: IVP, 1983).

            A delightful dialogue.

Leithart, Peter, Operation Rescue: Pro and Con. In The Biblical Worldview  4:9 (Sept., 1988), 6-9.

Moreland, J. P., and Geisler, Norman, The Life and Death

            Debate (NY: Praeger, 1990). 174. p.

Nathanson, Bernard, Aborting America (NY: Pinnacle Books, 1979). 320. P. A

Jewish abortionist who came to believe that the unborn child is human life.

North, Gary,  Lone Gunners For Jesus (Tyler: ICE, 1994). 47. p.

            ‑‑, Trespassing For Dear Life (Ft. Worth: Dominion Press,

            1989). 40. p.

            ‑‑, When Justice is Aborted (Ft. Worth: Dominion Press,

            1989). 182. p.

Schaeffer, F., and Koop, C. Everett, Whatever Happened to the

            Human Race? (Old Tappan, N. J.: Revell, 1979).

Spitzer, Walter, and Saylor, Carlyle L., ed., Birth Control and the Christian (Wheaton: Tyndale, 1969). 590. H. Reflecting older evangelical consensus on abortion. Some contributors later changed their views.




Beisner, E. Calvin, Prospects For Growth (Westchester:

            Crossway, 1990). 9.55. 282. p.

--, Where Garden Meets Wilderness: Evangelical Entry into the Environmental Debate (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1997).

North, Gary, Liberating Planet Earth (Ft. Worth: Dominion Press,

            1987). 190. p.

Rushdoony, Rousas J., The Myth of Over-Population (Nutley: Craig Press, 1969). 1.50. 56. P.

Schaeffer, Francis A., Pollution and the Death of Man (Wheaton: Tyndale, 1970). 125. P.


Man and Woman, Family, Marriage and Divorce


Adams, Jay, Marriage, Divorce and Remarriage (Phillipsburg:

            Presbyterian and Reformed, 1980). Popular presentation

            of traditional presbyterian (John Murray) view.

Calvin, John, Men, Women and Order in the Church (Dallas:

            Presbyterian Heritage, 1992). 63. p.

Clark, Stephen B., Man and Woman in Christ (Ann Arbor, Mi.:

            Servant Books, 1980). Both theological and sociological

            considerations. Conservative.

Clouse, Binnidell, and Clouse, Robert G., ed., Women in Ministry:

            Four Views (Downers Grove: IVP, 1989). 250. P.

Evans, Mary J., Woman in the Bible (Downers Grove: IVP, 1983).

            160. p.

Foh, Susan, Women and the Word of God (Phillipsburg:

            Presbyterian and Reformed, 1979).

Grudem, Wayne, and Piper, John, eds., Recovering Biblical Manhood

            and Womanhood (Wheaton: Crossway, 1991). Includes article by Frame,

            "Men and Women in the Image of God."

            --, and Poythress, Vern, What's Wrong With Gender-Neutral Bible Translations? (Libertyville, IL: Council on Biblical Manhood and Womanhood, 1997). 3.00. 32. p.

House, Wayne, ed., Divorce and Remarriage: Four Christian

            Views (Downers Grove: IVP, 1990). 267. p.

            --, The Role of Women in Ministry Today (Nashville:

            Thomas Nelson, 1990). 188. p.

Howe, E. Margaret, Women in Church Leadership (Grand Rapids:

            Zondervan, 1982). 6.95. 256. p.

Hurley, James, Man and Woman in Biblical Perspective (Grand

            Rapids: Zondervan, 1981).

Jewett, Paul K., Man as Male and Female (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans,


            --, The Ordination of Women (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans,

            1980). He is in favor.

Kassian, Mary A., The Feminist Gospel (Wheaton: Crossway, 1992). 287. P.

            --,  Women, Creation and the Fall (Westchester:

            Crossway, 1990). 192. p.

Knight, George, The Role Relationship of Men and Women (Chicago:

            Moody Press, 1985). Latest edition contains Wayne

            Grudem's study of "head" in the NT (which, he claims,

            means "authority over," not just "source").

Kroeger, Richard Clark, and Kroeger, Catherine Clark, I Suffer Not a Woman (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1992). 252. P. Evangelical feminist.

Mack, Wayne, The Role of Women in the Church (Cherry Hill: Mack Publishing Co., 1972). 84. P.

Mickelsen, Berkeley, and Alvira, Women and the Bible (Downers

            Grove: IVP, 1985). Evangelical feminist.

Mickelsen, Alvira, ed., Women, Authority and the Bible

            (Downers Grove: IVP, 1986). 11.95. 304. p.

Murray, John, Divorce (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1961). 2.50.


Olthuis, James, I Pledge You My Troth (N. Y.: Harper, 1975).

            Dooyeweerdian. Liberal on some issues.

Orthodox Presbyterian Church, General Assembly Committee

            Report on women in office. See Minutes for 1987, 88.

            Note Strimple's minority report which argues for

            women deacons.

Shepherd, Norman, The Case for Women in Office (South Holland, IL: Cottage    Grove Publications, ND). 4. P.

            --, Women in the Service of Christ (South Holland,

            IL: Cottage Grove CRC, 1992). 36. p.

Smedes, Lewis, Sex For Christians.

Smith, F. Lagard, Men of Strength for Women of God (Eugene,

            OR: Smith Harvest House, 1989). 299. p.

Sutton, Ray, Second Chance: Biblical Blueprints for Divorce

            and Remarriage (Ft. Worth: Dominion Press, 1988).

            Reconstructionist. Presents a case for grounds for

            divorce beyond those traditional in reformed theology.

            ‑‑, Who Owns the Family? (Nashville: Nelson, 1986).

            6.95. 194. p.

Tischler, Nancy M., A Voice of Her Own (Grand Rapids: Zondervan,

            1987). 159. p.

Yi, Mil Am, Women and the Church: a Biblical Perspective

            Foreword by JMF. (Columbus, GA: Brentwood Christian

            Press, 1990). 61. p.




Bahnsen, Greg, Homosexuality: A Biblical View (Grand Rapids: Baker,

            1978). 4.95. 152. p.

Grant, George, and Horne, Mark, Unnatural Affections (Franklin,

            Tenn.: Legacy Press, 1991). 99. p.

Meyers, Jeffrey, Does the Bible Forbid Family Planning? (Niceville: Biblical           Horizons, 1990). 31. p. Answers no.

Thielicke, Helmut, The Ethics of Sex (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1964). 4.95. 338. P.






Buswell, J. Oliver, III, Slavery, Segregation, and Scripture (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964). 2.50. 101. H.

Ellis, Carl F., Beyond Liberation (Downers Grove: IVP, 1983).

            7.95. 202. p.

            ‑‑, Free at Last? (Downers Grove: IVP, 1996). A black graduate of WTSP and a PCA pastor, on racial issues.

Perkins, John, Let Justice Roll Down (Glendale: G/L, 1976). 223. P.

            --, With Justice for All (Ventura: Regal Books, 1982). 10.95. 211. H.


Substance Abuse


Bacchiocchi, Samuele, Wine in the Bible (Berrien Springs, MI:

            Biblical Perspectives, 1989). 307. p. Argues for total abstinence. Seventh-

            day Adventist.

Gentry, Kenneth L., Jr., The Christian and Alcoholic Beverages (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1986). 117. P.

Morey, R. A., The Bible and Drug Abuse (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1973). 1.45. 105. P.




Economics, Poverty


Beisner, E. Calvin, Prosperity and Poverty (Westchester: Crossway,

            1988). 304. p.

Chilton, David, Productive Christians in an Age of Guilt

            Manipulators (Tyler, TX: ICE, 1981). Sarcastic,

            somewhat overstated, yet devastating reply to Sider. Recently revised and reprinted.

Clouse, Robert, ed., Wealth and Poverty: Four Christian Views

            (Downers Grove: IVP, 1984). Free Market (Gary North),

            Guided Market (William E. Diehl), Decentralist (Art

            Gish), Centralist (John Gladwyn).

Conn, Harvie, Bible Studies on World Evangelization and the

            Simple Lifestyle (Phillipsburg: P&R, 1981). 1.25. p.

Davis, John Jefferson, Your Wealth in God's World (Phillipsburg:

            Presbyterian and Reformed, 1984). Reformed scholar

            defends free market.

Galbraith, John K., The Nature of Mass Poverty (Cambridge:

            Harvard UP, 1979). 2.95. 150. p. Liberal secularist. Surprising concessions.

Gilder, George, Wealth and Poverty (NY: Basic Books, 1981).

            16.95. 306. h.

Goudzwaard, Bob, Aid For the Overdeveloped West (Toronto:

            Wedge, 1975). Dooyeweerdian; very leftist.

Grant, George, Bringing in the Sheaves: Transforming

            Poverty into Productivity (Atlanta: American Vision

            Press, 1985).

            --, The Dispossessed: Homelessness in America

            (Westchester: Crossway, 1986). Grant is a somewhat theonomic Reformed minister who has had great success in helping the poor

            and the homeless to become productive Christian


            ‑‑, In the Shadow of Plenty (Nashville: Nelson, 1986).

            6.95. 188. p.

Hall, David, ed., Welfare Reformed (Phillipsburg: P&R, 1994).

            232. p.

Hodge, Ian, Baptized Inflation: A Critique of "Christian"

            Keynesianism (Tyler, TX: ICE, 1986). Sharp critique

            of Vickers' book (see below).

Kelley, Michael, On Stone or Sand: The Ethics of Christianity,

            Capitalism, and Socialism (Carson, ND: Pleroma Press,

            1993). 241. p. Reformed, somewhat theonomic.

Nash, Ronald, ed., Poverty and Wealth: The Christian Debate

            Over Capitalism (Westchester: Crossway, 1986). Free


North, Gary, Economic Commentary on the Bible. Now in several

            volumes: The Dominion Covenant, Genesis; Moses and

            Pharaoh; The Sinai Strategy.

            ‑‑, Honest Money (Nashville: Nelson, 1986). 6.95. 174.


            ‑‑, Inherit the Earth: Biblical Principles for

            Economics (Ft. Worth: Dominion Press, 1981). 194. p.

            --, An Introduction to Christian Economics. Christian reconstruction.

Olasky, Marvin, The Tragedy of American Compassion (Washington:

            Regnery, 1992). 299. p.

Robbins, John, Answer to Ayn Rand (Washington: Mt. Vernon Publ.

            Co., 1974). 147. p.

Rushdoony, R. J., Politics of Guilt and Pity (Nutley: Craig

            Press, 1970). Christian reconstruction.

Sider, Ronald, ed., Living More Simply (Downers Grove: IVP, 1980). 4.95. 206.     P.

--, Rich Christians in an Age of Hunger (Downers

            Grove: IVP, 1977). Left of center. Revised and republished, 1997.

            Sider has been somewhat chastened by his critics.  Now an

            unambiguous free marketer, but urging compassionate use of


Simon, Arthur, Bread For the World (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans,

            1975). Immensely influential book advocating foreign

            aid, help for the poor. Criticized as leftist.

Vickers, Douglas, Economics and Man (Phillipsburg: Craig Press,

            1976). Australian, Van Tillian, professor of economics

            at various universities. Somewhat liberal politically.



Various Topics


Olasky, Marvin, Prodigal Press (Westchester: Crossway, 1988). 246. p.

Schlossberg, Herbert, A Fragrance of Oppression: The Church

            and its Persecutors (Wheaton: Crossway, 1991). 9:55. 252.