RPM, Volume 17, Number 45, November 1 to November 7, 2015

Barnes' New Testament Notes

Notes on the New Testament Explanatory and Practical
Part 27

By Albert Barnes

Grand Rapids, Mich.:
Baker Book House, 1949.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 1

Verses 1-4. See Barnes "Mr 12:41, also Mr 12:42-44

Verse 1. No Barnes text on this verse.

{a} "and saw the rich men" Mr 12:41

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 2

Verse 2. No Barnes text on this verse.

{1} "mites"

See Barnes "Mr 12:42"

{b} "more than they all" 2 Co 8:12

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 3

Verse 3. No Barnes text on this verse.

{b} "more than they all" 2 Co 8:12

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 4

Verse 4. Penury. Poverty.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 5

Verse 5. Goodly stones. Beautiful stones. Either referring to the large, square, and well-finished stones of which the eastern wall was built, or to the precious stones which might have been used in decorating the temple itself. See Barnes "Mr 13:1".

Gifts. This word properly denotes anything devoted or dedicated to God. Anciently warriors dedicated to their gods the spoils of war--the shields, and helmets, and armour, and garments of those slain in battle. These were suspended in the temples. It would seem that something of this kind had occurred in the temple of Jerusalem, and that the people, to express their gratitude to God, had suspended on the pillars and porches of the temple gifts and offerings. Josephus mentions particularly a golden vine with which Herod the Great had adorned the columns of the temple (Antiq. xiii. 8). See also 2 Mac. 5:16; 9:16.

{c} "And as some spake" Mt 24:1; Mr 13:1

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 6

Verse 6. See Barnes "Mt 24:2".

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 7

Verses 7-36. The account of the destruction of Jerusalem contained in this chapter has been fully considered in See Barnes "Mt 24:1, and following. All that will be necessary here will be an explanation of a few words that did not occur in that chapter.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 8

Verse 8. No Barnes text on this verse.

{e} "Take heed that ye" 2 Th 2:3,9,10; 1 Jo 4:1; 2 Jo 1:7

{f} "and the time draweth near" Re 1:3

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 9

Verse 9. Commotions. Insurrections. Subjects rising against their rulers.

{g} "be not terrified" Pr 3:25,26

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 10

Verse 10. No Barnes text on this verse.

{h} "Nation shall rise"Hag 2:22

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 11

Verse 11. Fearful sights.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 12

Verses 12-13. Synagogues, and into prisons. See Barnes "Mr 13:9, See Barnes "Mr 13:10"

{i} "into prisons" Ac 4:3; 5:18; 12:4; 16:24; Re 2:10

{k} "brought before kings" Ac 25:23

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 13

Verse 13. No Barnes text on this verse.

{l} "And it shall turn to" Php 1:28; 2 Th 1:5

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 14

Verse 14. Settle it therefore in your hearts. Fix it firmly in your minds--so firmly as to become a settled principle--that you are always to depend on God for aid in all your trials. Mr 13:11.

{m} "not to meditate" Mr 13:11

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 15

Verse 15. A mouth. Eloquence, ability to speak as the case may demand. Comp. Ex 4:11.

Gainsay. Speak against. They will not be able to reply to it, or to resist the force of what you shall say.

{n} "not be able" Ac 6:10

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 16

Verse 16. No Barnes text on this verse.

{o} "ye shall be betrayed" Mic 7:5,6

{p} "and some of you" Ac 7:59; 12:2; 26:10; Re 2:13; 6:9; 12:11

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 17

Verse 17. No Barnes text on this verse.

{q} "hated of all men." Joh 17:14

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 18

Verse 18. A hair of your head perish. This is a proverbial expression, denoting that they should not suffer any essential injury. This was strikingly fulfilled in the fact that in the calamities of Jerusalem there is reason to believe that no Christian suffered. Before those calamities came on the city they had fled to Pella, a city on the east of the Jordan. See Barnes "Mt 24:18".

{r} "But there shall not" Mt 10:30

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 19

Verse 19. In your patience. Rather by your perseverance. The word patience here means constancy or perseverance in sustaining afflictions.

Possess ye your souls. Some read here the future instead of the present of the verb rendered possess. The word possess means here to preserve or keep, and the word souls means lives. This passage may be thus translated: By persevering in bearing these trials you will save your lives, or you will be safe; or, by persevering preserve your lives, that is, do not yield to these calamities, but bear up under them, for he that endureth to the end, the same shall be saved. Comp. Mt 24:13.

{s} "In your patience" Ro 5:3; He 10:36; Jas 1:4

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 20

Verse 20. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 21

Verse 21. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 22

Verse 22. All things which are written may be fulfilled. Judgment had been threatened by almost all the prophets against that wicked city. They had spoken of its crimes and threatened its ruin. Once God had destroyed Jerusalem and carried the people to Babylon; but their crimes had been repeated when they returned, and God had again threatened their ruin. Particularly was this very destruction foretold by Daniel, Da 9:26,27.

"And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself; and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined."

See Barnes "Da 9:26, See Barnes "Da 9:27".

{t} "all things which" De 28:25,48; Da 9:26,27; Zec 11:6; 14:1,2

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 23

Verse 23. No Barnes text on this verse.

{u} "But woe unto them" La 4:10

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 24

Verse 24. Shall fall, &c. No less than one million one hundred thousand perished in the siege of Jerusalem.

Shall be led away captive. More than ninety thousand were led into captivity. See Barnes "Mt 24:1, and following.

Shall be trodden down by the Gentiles. Shall be in posses sion of the Gentiles, or be subject to them. The expression also implies that it would be an oppressive subjection, as when a captive in war is trodden down under the feet of the conqueror. Anciently conquerors trod on the necks of those who were subdued by them, Jos 10:24; 2 Sa 22:41; Eze 21:29. The bondage of Jerusalem has been long and very oppressive. It was for a long time under the dominion of the Romans, then of the Saracens, and is now of the Turks, and is aptly represented by a captive stretched on the ground whose neck is trodden by the foot of the conqueror.

Until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled. This passage has been understood very differently by different expositors. Some refer it to the time which the Romans who conquered it had dominion over it, as signifying that they should keep possession of it until a part of the pagans should be converted, when it should be rebuilt. Thus it was rebuilt by the Emperor Adrian. Others suppose that it refers to the end of the world, when all the Gentiles shall be converted, and they shall cease to be Gentiles by becoming Christians, meaning that it should always be desolate. Others, that Christ meant to say that in the times of the millennium, when the gospel should spread universally, he would reign personally on the earth, and that the Jews would return and rebuild Jerusalem and the temple. This is the opinion of the Jews and of many Christians. The meaning of the passage clearly is,

1st. That Jerusalem would be completely destroyed.

2nd. That this would be done by Gentiles--that is, by the Roman armies.

3rd. That this desolation would continue as long as God should judge it proper in a fit manner to express his abhorrence of the crimes of the nation--that is, until the times allotted to them by God for this desolation should be accomplished, without specifying how long that would be, or what would occur to the city after that. It may be rebuilt, and inhabited by converted Jews. Such a thing is possible, and the Jews naturally seek that as their home; but whether this be so or not, the time when the Gentiles, as such, shall have dominion over the city is limited. Like all other cities on the earth, it will yet be brought under the influence of the gospel, and will be inhabited by the true friends of God. Pagan, infidel, anti-Christian dominion shall cease there, and it will be again a place where God will be worshipped in sincerity--a place even then of peculiar interest from the recollection of the events which have occurred there. How long it is to be before this occurs is known only to Him "who hath put the times and seasons in his own power," Ac 1:7.

{w} "until the times of the Gentiles" Ro 11:25

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 25

Verse 25. See Barnes "Mt 24:29".

Upon the earth distress of nations. Some have proposed to render the word earth by land, confining it to Judea. It often has this meaning, and there seems some propriety in so using it here. The word translated distress denotes anxiety of mind--such an anxiety as men have when they do not know what to do to free themselves from calamities; and it means here that the calamities would be so great and overwhelming that they would not know what to do to escape. There would be a want of counsel, and deep anxiety at the impending evils.

With perplexity. Rather on account of their perplexity, or the desperate state of their affairs. The Syriac has it, "perplexity or wringing of hands," which is a sign of deep distress and horror.

The sea and the waves roaring. This is not to be understood literally, but as an image of great distress. Probably it is designed to denote that these calamities would come upon them like a deluge. As when in a storm the ocean roars, and wave rolls on wave and dashes against the shore, and each succeeding surge is more violent than the one that preceded it, so would the calamities come upon Judea. They would roll over the whole land, and each wave of trouble would be more violent than the one that preceded it, until the whole country would be desolate. The same image is also used in Is 8:7,8; Re 18:15.

{x} "Distress of nations" Da 12:1

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 26

Verse 26. Men's hearts failing them. This is an expression denoting the highest terror. The word rendered failing commonly denotes to die, and here it means that the terror would be so great that men would faint and be ready to die in view of the approaching calamities. And if this was true in respect to the judgments about to come upon Judea, how much more so will it be in the day of judgment, when the wicked will be arraigned before the Son of God, and when they shall have before them the prospect of the awful sufferings of hell --the pains and woes which shall continue for ever! It will be no wonder, then, if they call on the rocks and mountains to hide them from the face of God, and if their hearts sink within them at the prospect of eternal suffering.

{y} "powers of heaven" 2 Pe 3:10-12

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 27

Verse 27. No Barnes text on this verse.

{z} "distress of nations" Da 12:1

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 28

Verse 28. Your redemption draweth nigh. See Barnes "Mt 24:33".

This is expressed in the 31st verse thus: "the kingdom of God is nigh at hand"--that is, from that time God will signally build up his kingdom. It shall be fully established when the Jewish policy shall come to an end; when the temple shall be destroyed, and the Jews scattered abroad. Then the power of the Jews shall be at an end; they shall no longer be able to persecute you, and you shall be completely delivered from all these trials and calamities in Judea.

{a} "your redemption draweth nigh" Ro 8:23

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 29

Verse 29. No Barnes text on this verse.

{b} "And he spake" Mt 24:32; Mr 13:28"

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 30

Verse 30. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 31

Verse 31. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 32

Verse 32. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 33

Verse 33. No Barnes text on this verse.

{c} "Heaven and earth" Is 40:8; 51:6

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 34

Verse 34. Lest at any time your hearts be overcharged, &c. The meaning of this verse is,

Be continually expecting these things. Do not forget them, and do not be secure and satisfied with this life and the good things which it furnishes. Do not suffer yourselves to be drawn into the fashions of the world; to be conformed to its customs; to partake of its feasts and revelry; and so these calamities shall come upon you when you least expect them.

And from this we may learn--what alas! we may from the lives of many professing Christians --that there is need of cautioning the disciples of Jesus now that they do not indulge in the festivities of this life, and forget that they are to die and come to judgment. How many, alas! who bear the Christian name, have forgotten this caution of the Saviour, and live as if their lives were secure; as if they feared not death; as if there were no heaven and no judgment! Christians should feel that they are soon to die, and that their portion is not in this life; and, feeling this, they should be looking for and hasting unto the coming of the day of God.

Overcharged. Literally, be made heavy, as is the case with those who have eaten and drunken too much.

Surfeiting. Excessive eating and drinking, so as to oppress the body; indulgence in the pleasures of the table. This word does not include intoxication, but merely indulgence in food and drink, though the food and drink should be in themselves lawful.

Drunkenness. Intoxication, intemperance in drinking. The ancients were not acquainted with the poison that we chiefly use on which to become drunk. They had no distilled spirits. They became intoxicated on wine, and strong drink made of a mixture of dates, honey, &c. All nations have contrived some way to become intoxicated--to bring in folly, and disease, and poverty, and death, by drunkenness; and in nothing is the depravity of men more manifest than in thus endeavouring to hasten the ravages of crime and death.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 35

Verse 35. As a snare. In Matthew and Mark Jesus compares the suddenness with which these calamities would come to the deluge coming in the days of Noah. Here he likens it to a snare. Birds are caught by a snare or net. It is sprung on them quickly, and when they are not expecting it. So, says he, shall these troubles come upon Judea. The figure is often used to denote the suddenness of calamities, Ps 69:22; Re 11:9; Ps 124:7; Is 24:17.

{f} "For as a snare" 1 Th 5:2; 2 Pe 3:10; Re 16:15

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 36

Verse 36. To stand before the Son of man. These approaching calamities are represented as the coming of the Son of man to judge Jerusalem for its crimes. Its inhabitants were so wicked that they were not worthy to stand before him and would be condemned, and the city would be overthrown. To stand before him here denotes approbation, acquittal, favour, and is equivalent to saying that they would be free from these calamities, while they should come upon others. Ro 14:4; Ps 1:5; 130:3; Re 6:17.

Perhaps, also, there is a reference here to the day of judgment. See Barnes "Mt 24:1, and following.

{g} "Watch ye" Mt 25:13

{h} "accounted" Lu 20:35

{i} "to stand" Ps 1:5

{k} "before the Son of man" Jude 1:24

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 37

Verses 37-38.

See Barnes Mt "21:17"

Came early in the morning. He returned early from the Mount Of Olives, and taught in the temple. Our Saviour did not waste his mornings in idleness or sleep. He rose early and repaired to the temple. The people, also, flocked to the sanctuary to hear him. This example is at once an encouragement to early rising and to the early worship of God. It is a reproof of those who spend the part of the day best fitted for devotion in unnecessary sleep; and it shows the propriety, where it can be done, of assembling early in the morning for prayer and the worship of God. Early prayer-meetings have the countenance of the Saviour, and will be found to be eminently conducive to the promotion of religion. The whole example of Jesus goes to show the importance of beginning the day with God, and of lifting up the heart to him for direction, for the supply of our wants, and for preservation from temptation, before the mind is engrossed by the cares, and distracted by the perplexities, and led away by the temptations of this life. Commencing the day with God is like arresting evil at the fountain; prayer at any other time, without this, is an attempt to arrest it when it has swollen to a stream and rolls on like a torrent. Let the day be begun with God, and the work of piety is easy. Let the world have the ascendancy in the morning, and it will be likely to have it also at noonday and at evening.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 21 - Verse 38

Verse 38. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 1

Verses 1-2. See Barnes "Mt 26:1"

See Barnes "Mt 26:2"

Verse 1. No Barnes text on this verse.

{a} "feast of unleavened bread" Mt 26:2; Mr 14:1

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 2

Verse 2. No Barnes text on this verse.

{b} "And the chief priests" Ps 2:2; Ac 4:27

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 3

Verse 3. Then entered Satan into Judas. It is not necessary to suppose that Satan entered personally into the body of Judas, but only that he brought him under his influence; he filled his mind with an evil passion, and led him on to betray his Master. The particular passion of which Satan made use was avarice--probably the besetting sin of Judas. To show its exceeding evil and baseness, it is only necessary to say that when it produced its appropriate effect in this case, it led to the betraying and crucifixion of the Son of God. We may learn, also, that when Satan tempts men, he commonly does it by exciting and raising to the highest pitch their native passions. He does not make them act contrary to their nature, but leads them on to act out their proper disposition.

Satan. This word properly means an adversary or an accuser. It is the name which in the Scriptures is commonly given to the prince or leader of evil spirits, and is given to him because he is the accuser or calumniator of the righteous (see Re 12:10; comp. Job 1:6-9), as well as because he is the adversary of God.

Being of the number of the twelve. One of the twelve apostles. This greatly aggravated his crime. He should have been bound by most tender ties to Jesus. He was one of his family--long with him, and treated by him with every mark of kindness and confidence; and nothing could more enhance his guilt than thus to make use of this confidence for the commission of one of the basest crimes.

{c} "entered Satan" Mt 26:14; Mr 14:10; Joh 13:2,27

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 4

Verses 4-6.

Verse 4. Chief priests and captains. See Barnes "Mt 26:14".

See the account of the bargain which Judas made with them explained in See Barnes "Mt 26:14"

See Barnes "Mt 26:15"

See Barnes "Mt 26:16"

Barnes "Mr 14:10"

See Barnes "Mr 14:11".

Absence of the multitude. The multitude, the people, were then favourable to Jesus. He had preached in the temple, and many of them believed that he was the Messiah. It was a hazardous thing, therefore, to take him by force, and in their presence, as they might rise and rescue him. Hence they sought to take him when he was away from the multitude; and as Judas, knew of a place where he could be found alone, they were glad of the opportunity of so easily securing him.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 5

Verse 5. No Barnes text on this verse.

{d} "and covenanted to" Zec 11:12

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 6

Verse 6. No Barnes text on this verse.

{1} "in the absence of the multitude" or, "without tumult"

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 7

Verses 7-13.

See Barnes "Mt 26:17"

See Barnes "Mt 26:18"

See Barnes "Mt 26:19"

See Barnes "Mr 14:12"

See Barnes "Mr 14:13"

See Barnes "Mr 14:14"

See Barnes "Mr 14:15"

See Barnes "Mr 14:16"

Verse 7. No Barnes text on this verse.

{e} "day of unleavened bread" Ex 12:1 and following.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 8

Verse 8. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 9

Verse 9. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 10

Verse 10. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 11

Verse 11. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 12

Verse 12. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 13

Verse 13. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 14

Verse 14. When the hour was come. The hour of eating the paschal lamb, which was in the evening. See Barnes "Mt 26:20"

{f} "And when the hour was come" Mt 26:20; Mr 14:17

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 15

Verse 15. With desire I have desired. This is a Hebrew form of expression, and means I have greatly desired. The reasons why he desired this we may suppose to have been--

1st. That, as he was about to leave them, he was desirous once of seeing them together, and of partaking with them of one of the religious privileges of the Jewish dispensation. Jesus was man as well as God, and he never undervalued the religious rites of his country, or the blessings of social and religious intercourse; and there is no impropriety in supposing that even he might feel that his human nature might be prepared by the service of religion for his great and terrible sufferings.

2nd. He doubtless wished to take an opportunity to prepare them for his sufferings, and to impress upon them more fully the certainty that he was about to leave them, that they might be prepared for it.

3rd. We may also suppose that he particularly desired it that he might institute for their use, and for the edification of all Christians, the supper which is called by his name--the Lord's Supper. All his sufferings were the expression of love to his people, and he was desirous of testifying always his regard for their comfort and welfare.

Before I suffer.

{2} "With desire I have desired", or "I have heartily desired"

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 16

Verse 16. Until it be fulfilled. See Barnes "Mt 26:29".

{g} "until" Lu 14:15; 1 Co 5:7,8; Re 19:9

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 17

Verse 17. And he took the cup and gave thanks. This was not the sacramental cup, for that was taken after supper, Lu 22:20. This was one of the cups which were usually taken during the celebration of the Passover, and pertained to that observance. After he had kept this in the usual manner, he instituted the supper which bears his name, using the bread and wine which had been prepared for the Passover, and thus ingrafted the Lord's Supper on the Passover, or superseded the Passover by another ordinance, which was intended to be perpetual.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 18

Verse 18. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 19

Verses 19,20. See Barnes "Mt 26:26, also Mt 26:27,28

Verse 19. No Barnes text on this verse.

{h} "And he took bread" 1 Co 10:16; 11:24

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 20

Verse 20. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 21

Verses 21-23.

See Barnes "Mt 26:21, also Mt 26:22-25.

Verse 21. No Barnes text on this verse.

{i} "is with me" Ps 41:9; Joh 13:26

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 22

Verse 22. No Barnes text on this verse.

{k} "as it was determined" Lu 24:46; Ac 2:23; 4:28; 1 Co 15:3

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 23

Verse 23. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 24

Verse 24. A strife. A contention or debate.

Which of them should be the greatest. The apostles, in common with the Jews generally, had supposed that the Messiah would come as a temporal prince, and in the manner of other princes of the earth--of course, that he would have officers of his government, ministers of state, &c. Their contention was founded on this expectation, and they were disputing which of them should be raised to the highest office. They had before had a similar contention. See Mt 18:1; 20:20-28. Nothing can be more humiliating than that the disciples should have had such contentions, and in such a time and place. That just as Jesus was contemplating his own death, and labouring to prepare them for it, they should strive and contend about office and rank, shows how deeply seated is the love of power; how ambition will find its way into the most secret and sacred places; and how even the disciples of the meek and lowly Jesus are sometimes actuated by this most base and wicked feeling.

{l} "And there was also" Mr 9:34; Lu 9:46

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 25

Verse 25. The kings of the Gentiles. The kings of the nations, or of the earth. They do this, and it is to be expected of them, and it is right. Our Lord does not mean to say that it was wrong that there should be such authority, but that his kingdom was to be of a different character, and they were not to expect it there.

Over them. That is, over the nations.

Are called benefactors. The word benefactor is applied to one who bestows favour on another. It was applied to kings by way of compliment or flattery. Some of them might have been truly benefactors of their people, but this was by no means true of all. Yet it was applied to all, and especially to the Roman emperors. It is found applied to them often in the writings of Josephus and Philo.

{m} "The kings of the Gentiles" Mt 20:25; Mr 10:42

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 26

Verses 26,27. But ye shall not be so. Christ here takes occasion to explain the nature of his kingdom. He assures them that it is established on different principles from those of the world; that his subjects were not to expect titles, and power, and offices of pomp in his kingdom. He that would be most advanced in his kingdom would be he that was most humble; and in order to show them this, he took a towel and girded himself after the manner of a servant, and washed their feet, to show them what ought to be their feelings toward each other. See Joh 13:4-17.

He that sitteth at meat. The master of the feast, or one of his guests.

But I am among you, &c. This was said in connection with his washing their feet. He showed them how they ought to feel and act toward each other. They ought, therefore, not to aim at office and power, but to be humble, and serve and aid one another.

{n} "ye shall not be so" 1 Pe 5:3; 3 Jo 1:9,10

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 27

Verse 27. No Barnes text on this verse.

{o} "but I am among you" Joh 13:13,14; Php 2:7

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 28

Verse 28. My temptations. My trials, my humiliations, and my assaults from the power of Satan and a wicked world.

And I appoint unto you a kingdom. He assures them here that they should have a kingdom--their expectations would be realized. They had continued with him; they had seen how he had lived, and to what trials he had been subjected; they had all along expected a kingdom, and he assures them that they should not be disappointed.

As my Father, &c. They had seen how God had appointed a kingdom to him. It was not with pomp, and splendour, and external glory, but it was in poverty, want, persecution, and trial. So would he appoint to them a kingdom. They should surely possess it; but it would be not with external splendour, but by poverty and toil. The original word appoint has the force of a covenant or compact, and means that it should be surely or certainly done, or that he pledged himself to do it. All Christians must enter into the kingdom of heaven after the manner of their Lord--through much tribulation; but, though it must be, as it was with him, by many tears and sorrows, yet they shall surely reach the place of their rest and the reward of heaven, for it is secured to them by the covenant pledge and faithfulness of their Lord and King.

{p} "my temptations" He 4:15

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 29

Verse 29. No Barnes text on this verse.

{q} "a kingdom" Mt 25:34; Lu 12:32; 1 Co 9:25; 1 Pe 5:4

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 30

Verse 30. See Barnes "Mt 19:28"

{r} "that ye may eat and drink" Re 19:9

{s} "judging the twelve tribes" Mt 19:28; 1 Co 6:2; Re 3:21

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 31

Verse 31. Simon. Peter. Jesus, foreseeing the danger of Peter, and knowing that he was about to deny him, took occasion to forewarn him and put him on his guard, and also to furnish him with a solace when he should be brought to repentance.

Satan hath desired. Satan is the prince of evil. One of his works is to try the faith of believers--to place temptations and trials in their way, that they may be tested. Thus God gave Job into his hands, that it might be seen whether he would be found faithful, or would apostatize. See Barnes "Job 1:7, also Job 1:8-12. So Satan desired to have Peter in his hands, that he might also try him.

May sift you as wheat. Grain was agitated or shaken in a kind of fan or sieve. The grain remained in the fan, and the chaff and dust were thrown off. So Christ says that Satan desired to try Peter; to place trials and temptations before him; to agitate him; to see whether anything of faith would remain, or whether all would not be found to be chaff--mere natural ardour and false professions.

{t} "Satan" 1 Pe 5:8

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 32

Verse 32. That thy faith fail not. The word faith, here, seems to be used in the sense of religion, or attachment to Christ, and the words fail not mean utterly fail or fail altogether--that is, apostatize. It is true that the courage of Peter failed; it is true that he had not that immediate confidence in Jesus and reliance on him which he had before had; but the prayer of Jesus was that he might not altogether apostatize from the faith. God heard Jesus always (Joh 11:42); it follows, therefore, that every prayer which he ever offered was answered; and it follows, as he asked here for a specific thing, that that thing was granted; and as he prayed that Peter's faith might not utterly fail, so it follows that there was no time in which Peter was not really a pious man. Far as he wandered, and grievously as he sinned, yet he well knew that Jesus was the Messiah. He did know the man; and though his fears overcame him and led him to aggravated sin, yet the prayer of Christ was prevalent, and he was brought to true repentance.

When thou art converted. The word converted means turned, changed, recovered. The meaning is, when thou art turned from this sin, when thou art recovered from this heinous offence, then use your experience to warn and strengthen those who are in danger of like sins. A man may be converted or turned from any sin, or any evil course. He is regenerated but once--at the beginning of his Christian life; he may be converted as often as he fails into sin.

Strengthen thy brethren. Confirm them, warn them, encourage them. They are in continual danger, also, of sinning. Use your experience to warn them of their danger, and to comfort and sustain them in their temptations. And from this we learn--

1st. That one design of permitting Christians to fall into sin is to show their own weakness and dependence on God; and,

2nd. That they who have been overtaken in this manner should make use of their experience to warn and preserve others from the same path. The two epistles of Peter, and his whole life, show that he was attentive to this command of Jesus; and in his death he manifested his deep abhorrence of this act of dreadful guilt in denying his blessed Lord, by requesting to be crucified with his head downward, as unworthy to suffer in the same manner that Christ did.

See Barnes "Joh 21:18".

{v} "I have prayed for thee" Joh 17:9,15; He 7:25; 1 Jo 2:1

{w} "strengthen" Ps 51:13; Joh 21:15-17

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 33

Verses 33,34. See Barnes "Mt 26:33, also Mt 26:34-35

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 34

Verse 34. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 35

Verse 35. When I sent you, &c. See Barnes "Mt 10:9"

See Barnes "Mt 10:10".

Lacked ye, &c. Did you want anything? Did not God fully provide for you? He refers to this to convince them that his words were true; that their past experience should lead them to put confidence in him and in God.

{x} "Lacked" Lu 9:3

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 36

Verse 36. But now. The Saviour says the times are changed. Before, he sent them out only for a little time. They were in their own country. Their journeys would be short, and there was no need that they should make preparation for a long absence, or for encountering great dangers. But now they were to go into the wide world, among strangers, trials, dangers, and wants. And as the time was near; as he was about to die; as these dangers pressed on, it was proper that they should make provision for what was before them.

A purse. See Barnes "Mt 10:9".

He intimates that they should now take money, as it would be necessary to provide for their wants in travelling.

Scrip. See Barnes "Mt 10:10".

And he that hath no sword. There has been much difficulty in understanding why Jesus directed his disciples to arm themselves, as if it was his purpose to make a defence. It is certain that the spirit of his religion is against the use of the sword, and that it was not his purpose to defend himself against Judas. But it should be remembered that these directions about the purse, the scrip, and the sword were not made with reference to his being taken in the garden, but with reference to their future life. The time of the trial in Gethsemane was just at hand; nor was there time then, if no other reason existed, to go and make the purchase. It altogether refers to their future life. They were going into the midst of dangers. The country was infested with robbers and wild beasts. It was customary to go armed. He tells them of those dangers-of the necessity of being prepared in the usual way to meet them. This, then, is not to be considered as a specific, positive command to procure a sword, but an intimation that great dangers were before them; that their manner of life would be changed, and that they would need the provisions appropriate to that kind of life. The common preparation for that manner of life consisted in money, provisions, and arms; and he foretells them of that manner of life by giving them directions commonly understood to be appropriate to it. It amounts, then, to a prediction that they would soon leave the places which they had been accustomed to, and go into scenes of poverty, want, and danger, where they would feel the necessity of money, provisions, and the means of defence. All, therefore, that the passage justifies is--

1st. That it is proper for men to provide beforehand for their wants, and for ministers and missionaries as well as any others.

2nd. That self-defence is lawful. Men encompassed with danger may lawfully defend their lives. It does not prove that it is lawful to make offensive war on a nation or an individual.

Let him, sell his garment. His mantle or his outer garment. See Barnes "Mt 5:40".

The meaning is, let him procure one at any expense, even if he is obliged to sell his clothes for it--intimating that the danger would be very great and pressing.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 37

Verse 37. This that is written. See Barnes "Is 53:12".

Was reckoned among the transgressors. Not reckoned as a transgressor, but among or with them--that is, he was treated as transgressors are. He was put to death in their company, and as he would have been if he had been a transgressor. He was innocent, holy, harmless, and undefiled, He 7:26. God knew this always, and could not think of him, or make him to be otherwise than he was; yet it pleased him to bruise him, and to give him into the hands of men who did reckon him as a transgressor, and who treated him accordingly.

Have an end. This may either mean, "shall be surely accomplished," or "they are about to be fulfilled," or "are now fulfilled." The former is probably the meaning, denoting that every prophecy in regard to him would certainly be accomplished.

{y} "reckoned with transgressors" Is 53:12

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 38

Verse 38. Are two swords. The Galileans, it is said, often went armed. The Essenes did so also. The reason was that the country was full of robbers and wild beasts, and it was necessary to carry, in their travels, some means of defence. It seems that the disciples followed the customs of the country, and had with them them some means of defence, though they had but two swords among the twelve.

It is enough. It is difficult to understand this. Some suppose that it is spoken ironically; as if he had said, "You are bravely armed indeed, with two swords among twelve men, and to meet such a host!" Others, that he meant to reprove them for understanding him literally, as if he meant that they were then to procure swords for immediate battle. As if he had said, "This is absurd, or a perversion of my meaning. I did not intend this, but merely to foretell you of impending dangers after my death." It is to be observed that he did not say "the two swords are enough," but "it is enough;" perhaps meaning simply, enough has been said. Other matters press on, and you will yet understand what I mean.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 39

Verses 39-46. See Barnes "Mt 26:30"

through Mt 26:31-46. See Barnes "Mr 14:26"

through Mr 14:27-42.

Verse 39. No Barnes text on this verse.

{z} "He went out" Mt 26:36; Mr 14:32; Joh 18:1

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 40

Verse 40. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 41

Verse 41. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 42

Verse 42. No Barnes text on this verse.

{3} "Remove this cup" or "willing to remove"

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 43

Verse 43. Strengthening him. His human nature, to sustain the great burden that was upon his soul. Some have supposed from this that he was not divine as well as human; for if he was God, how could an angel give any strength or comfort? and why did not the divine nature alone sustain the human? But the fact that he was divine does not affect the case at all. It might be asked with the same propriety, If he was, as all admit, the friend of God, and beloved of God, and holy, why, if he was a mere man, did not God sustain him alone, without an angel's intervening ? But the objection in neither case would have any force. The man, Christ Jesus, was suffering. His human nature was in agony, and it is the manner of God to sustain the afflicted by the intervention of others; nor was there any more unfitness in sustaining the human nature of his Son in this manner than any other sufferer.

{a} "angel" Mt 4:11

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 44

Verse 44. In an agony. See Barnes "Mt 26:42, also Mt 26:43-44

{b} "agony" La 1:12; Joh 12:27; He 5:7

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 45

Verse 45. Sleeping for sorrow. On account of the greatness of their sorrow. See Barnes "Mt 26:40".

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 46

Verse 46. No Barnes text on this verse.

{c} "pray" Lu 22:40

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 47

Verses 47-53. See Barnes "Mt 26:48, also Mt 26:49-56

{d} "behold" Mt 26:47; Mr 14:43; Joh 18:3

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 48

Verse 48. Betrayest thou the Son of man with a kiss? By the Son of man was evidently meant the Messiah. Judas had had the most satisfactory evidence of that, and did not doubt it. A kiss was the sign of affection. By that slight artifice Judas thought to conceal his base purpose. Jesus with severity reproaches him for it. Every word is emphatic. Betrayest thou--dost thou violate all thy obligations of fidelity, and deliver thy Master up to death? Betrayest thou-- thou, so long with him, so much favoured, so sure that this is the Messiah? Betrayest thou the Son of man--the Messiah, the hope of the nations, the desire of all people, the world's Redeemer? Betrayest thou the Son of man with a kiss--the sign of friendship and affection employed in a base and wicked purpose, intending to add deceit, disguise, and the prostitution of a mark of affection to the crime of treason? Every word of this must have gone to the very soul of Judas. Perhaps few reproofs of crime more resemble the awful searchings of the souls of the wicked in the day of judgment.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 49

Verse 49. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 50

Verse 50. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 51

Verse 51. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 52

Verse 52. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 53

Verse 53. No Barnes text on this verse.

{e} "but this is your hour" Job 20:5; Joh 12:27

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 54

Verses 54-62. See Barnes "Mt 26:57, also Mt 26:58-75

Verse 54. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 55

Verse 55. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 56

Verse 56. No Barnes text on this verse.

{f} "a certain maid" Mt 26:69; Mr 14:66,69; Joh 18:25

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 57

Verse 57. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 58

Verse 58. No Barnes text on this verse.

{g} "And after a little while" Mt 26:71; Mr 14:69; Joh 18:25

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 59

Verse 59. No Barnes text on this verse.

{h} "another confidently" Mt 26:73; Mr 14:70; Joh 18:26

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 60

Verse 60. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 61

Verse 61. No Barnes text on this verse.

{i} "And Peter" Mt 26:75; Mr 14:72

{k} "Before the cock crow" Lu 22:34

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 62

Verse 62. No Barnes text on this verse.

{l} "And Peter" Ps 130:1-4; 143:1-4; Jer 31:18; Eze 7:16; 1 Co 10:12

2 Co 7:10,11

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 63

Verse 63. No Barnes text on this verse.

{m} "And the men" Mt 26:67,68; Mr 14:65

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 64

Verse 64. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 65

Verse 65. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 66

Verse 66. No Barnes text on this verse.

{n} "And as soon as it was day" Mt 27:1; Ac 4:26-28

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 67

Verse 67. No Barnes text on this verse.

{o} "Art thou the Christ" Mt 26:63; Mr 14:65

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 68

Verse 68. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 69

Verse 69. No Barnes text on this verse.

{p} "right hand" He 1:3; 8:1; Re 3:21

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 70

Verse 70. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 22 - Verse 71

Verse 71. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 1

Verse 1.

See Barnes "Mt 27:1,2".

{a} "the whole multitude" Mt 27:2,11; Mr 15:1; Joh 18:28

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 2

Verse 2. This fellow. The word fellow is not in the original. It conveys a notion of contempt, which no doubt they felt, but which is not expressed in the Greek, and which it is not proper should be expressed in the translation. It might be translated, "We found this man."

Perverting the nation. That is, exciting them to sedition and tumults. This was a mere wanton accusation, but it was plausible before a Roman magistrate; for,

1st. The Galileans, as Josephus testifies, were prone to seditions and tumults.

2nd. Jesus drew multitudes after him, and they thought it was easy to show that this was itself promoting tumults and seditions.

Forbidding, &c. About their charges they were very cautious and cunning. They did not say that he taught that men should not give tribute--that would have been too gross a charge, and would have been easily refuted; but it was an inference which they drew. They said it followed from his doctrine. He professed to be a king. They inferred, therefore, if he was a king, that he must hold that it was not right to acknowledge allegiance to any foreign prince; and if they could make this out, they supposed that Pilate must condemn him of course.

Tribute. Taxes.

Caesar. The Roman emperor, called also Tiberius. The name Caesar was common to the Roman emperors, as Pharaoh was to the Egyptian kings. All the kings of Egypt were called Pharaoh, or the Pharaoh; so all the Roman emperors were called Caesar.

{b} "accuse him" Zec 11:8

{c} "We found this fellow" Lu 23:5; Ac 16:20,21; 17:6,7

{d} "forbidding to give tribute" Mt 17:27; 22:21; Mar 12:17

{e} "he himself is Christ a king" Joh 18:36; 19:12

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 3

Verse 3. See Barnes "Mt 27:11"

{f} "And he answered" 1 Ti 6:13

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 4

Verse 4. I find no fault. I see no evidence that he is guilty of what you charge him with. This was after Pilate had taken Jesus into the judgment-hall by himself and examined him privately, and had been satisfied in regard to the nature of his kingdom. See Joh 18:33-38. He was then satisfied that though he claimed to be a king, yet his kingdom was not of this world, and that his claims did not interfere with those of Caesar.

{g} "I find no fault" Joh 18:38; 19:4; He 7:26; 1 Pe 2:22

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 5

Verse 5. The more fierce. The more urgent and pressing. They saw that there was a prospect of losing their cause, and they attempted to press on Pilate the point that would be most likely now to affect him. Pilate had, in fact, acquitted him of the charge of being an enemy to Caesar, and they therefore urged the other point more vehemently.

Stirreth up the people. Excites them to tumult and sedition.

All Jewry. All Judea.

From Galilee to this place. To Jerusalem-that is, throughout the whole country. It is not merely in one place, but from one end of the land to the other.

{h} "more fierce" Ps 57:4

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 6

Verse 6. Whether he were a Galilean. He asked this because, if he was, he properly belonged to Herod's jurisdiction, who reigned over Galilee.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 7

Verse 7. Herod's jurisdiction. Herod Antipas, a son of Herod the Great. This was the same Herod that put John the Baptist to death. Jesus had passed the most of his life in the part of the country where he ruled, and it was therefore considered that he belonged to his jurisdiction--that is, that it belonged to Herod, not to Pilate, to try this cause.

{i} "Herod's jurisdiction" Lu 3:1

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 8

Verse 8. No Barnes text on this verse.

{k} "for he was desirous" Lu 9:9

{l} "because he had heard" Mt 14:1; Mr 6:14

{m} "and he hoped" 2 Ki 5:11

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 9

Verse 9. No Barnes text on this verse.

{n} "but he answered" Ps 38:13,14; 39:1,9; Is 53:7

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 10

Verse 10. Vehemently accused him. Violently or unjustly accused him, endeavouring to make it appear that he had been guilty of sedition in Herod's province.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 11

Verse 11. Herod with his men of war. With his soldiers, or his bodyguard. It is probable that in travelling he had a guard to attend him constantly.

Set him at nought. Treated him with contempt and ridicule.

A gorgeous robe. A white or shining robe, for this is the meaning of the original. The Roman princes wore purple robes, and Pilate therefore put such a robe on Jesus. The Jewish kings wore a white robe, which was often rendered very shining or gorgeous by much tinsel or silver interwoven. Josephus says that the robe which Agrippa wore was so bright with silver that when the sun shone on it, it so dazzled the eyes that it was difficult to look on it. The Jews and Romans therefore decked him in the manner appropriate to their own country, for purposes of mockery. All this was unlawful and malicious, as there was not the least evidence of his guilt.

Sent him to Pilate. It was by the interchange of these civilities that they were made friends. It would seem that Pilate sent him to Herod as a token of civility and respect, and with a design, perhaps, of putting an end to their quarrel. Herod returned the civility, and it resulted in their reconciliation.

{o} "set him at nought" Is 49:7; 53:3

{p} "gorgeous robe" Joh 19:5

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 12

Verse 12. Made friends together, &c. What had been the cause of their quarrel is unknown. It is Commonly supposed that it was Pilate's slaying the Galileans in Jerusalem, as related in Lu 13:1,2. The occasion of their reconciliation seems to have been the civility and respect which Pilate showed to Herod in this case. It was not because they were united in hating Jesus, as is often the case with wicked men, for Pilate was certainly desirous of releasing him, and both considered him merely as an object of ridicule and sport. It is true, however, that wicked men, at variance in other things, are often united in opposing and ridiculing Christ and his followers; and that enmities of long standing are sometimes made up, and the most opposite characters brought together, simply to oppose religion. Comp. Ps 83:5-7.

{q} "friends" Ac 4:27

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 13

Verse 13. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 14

Verse 14. No Barnes text on this verse.

{r} "behold, I" Lu 23:4

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 15

Verse 15. Nothing worthy of death is done unto him. Deserving of death. The charges are not proved against him. They had had every opportunity of proving them, first before Pilate and then before Herod, unjustly subjecting him to trial before two men in succession, and thus giving them a double opportunity of condemning him, and yet, after all, he was declared by both to be innocent. There could be no better evidence that he was innocent.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 16

Verse 16. I will therefore chastise him. The word chastise here means to scourge or to whip. This was usually done before capital punishment, to increase the sufferings of the man condemned. It is not easy to see the reason why, if Pilate supposed Jesus to be innocent, he should propose publicly to scourge him. It was as really unjust to do that as it was to crucify him. But probably he expected by this to conciliate the minds of his accusers; to show them that he was willing to gratify them if it could be done with propriety; and perhaps he expected that by seeing him whipped and disgraced, and condemned to ridicule, to contempt, and to suffering, they would be satisfied. It is farther remarked that among the Romans it was competent for a magistrate to inflict a slight punishment on a man when a charge of gross offence was not fully made out, or where there was not sufficient testimony to substantiate the precise charge alleged. All this shows,

1st. the palpable injustice of our Lord's condemnation;

2nd. the persevering malice and obstinacy of the Jews; and,

3rd. the want of firmness in Pilate. He should have released him at once; but the love of popularity led him to the murder of the Son of God. Man should do his duty in all situations; and he that, like Pilate, seeks only for public favour and popularity, will assuredly be led into crime.

{s} "chastise" Is 53:5

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 17

Verse 17. See Barnes "Mt 27:15"

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 18

Verses 18-23. See Barnes "Mt 27:20, also Mt 27:21-23

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 19

Verse 19. No Barnes text on this verse.

{t} "for murder" Ac 3:14

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 20

Verse 20. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 21

Verse 21. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 22

Verse 22. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 23

Verses 23-25.

See Barnes "Mt 27:26"

{u} "were instant" Ps 22:12; Lu 23:5

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 24

Verse 24. No Barnes text on this verse.

{1} "gave sentence", or "assented"

{v} "as they required" Ex 23:2

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 25

Verse 25. No Barnes text on this verse.

{w} "released unto them" Ac 3:14

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 26

Verse 26. See Barnes "Mt 27:32".

After Jesus. Probably to bear one end of the cross. Jesus was feeble and unable to bear it alone, and they compelled Simon to help him.

{x} "as they led him away" Mt 27:32; Mr 15:21; Joh 19:17

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 27

Verse 27. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 28

Verse 28. Daughters of Jerusalem. Women of Jerusalem. This was a common mode of speaking among the Hebrews.

Weep for yourselves, &c. This refers to the calamities that were about to come upon them in the desolation of their city by the Romans.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 29

Verse 29. No Barnes text on this verse.

{y} "behold, the days" Mt 24:19; Lu 21:23

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 30

Verse 30. To the mountains, Fall on us, &c. This is an image of great calamities and judgments. So great will be the calamities that they will seek for shelter from the storm, and will call on the hills to protect them. The same figure is used respecting the wicked in the day of judgment in Re 6:16,17. Compare also Is 2:21

{z} "Then shall they begin" Isa 2:19; Ho 10:8; Re 16:6; 9:6

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 31

Verse 31. For if they do these things in a green tree, & c. This seems to be a proverbial expression. A green tree is not easily set on fire; a dry one is easily kindled and burns rapidly; and the meaning of the passage is--

If they, the Romans, do these things to me, who am innocent and blameless; if they punish me in this manner in the face of justice, what will they not do in relation to this guilty nation? What security have they that heavier judgments will not come upon them? What desolations and woes may not be expected when injustice and oppression have taken the place of justice, and have set up a rule over this wicked people?

Our Lord alludes, evidently, to the calamities that would come upon them by the Romans in the destruction of their city and temple. The passage may be applied, however, without impropriety, and with great beauty and force, to the punishment of the wicked in the future world. Thus applied, it means that the sufferings of the Saviour, as compared with the sufferings of the guilty, were like the burning of a green tree as compared with the burning of one that is dry. A green tree is not adapted to burn; a dry one is. So the Saviour --innocent, pure, and holy--stood in relation to suffering. There were sufferings which an innocent being could not endure. There was remorse of conscience, the sense of guilt, punishment properly so called, and the eternity of woes. He had the consciousness of innocence, and he would not suffer for ever. He had no passions to be enkindled that would rage and ruin the soul. The sinner is adapted to sufferings, like a dry tree to the fire. He is guilty, and will suffer all the horrors of remorse of conscience. He will be punished literally. He has raging and impetuous passions, and they will be enkindled in hell, and will rage for ever and ever. The meaning is, that if the innocent Saviour suffered so much, the sufferings of the sinner for ever in hell must be more unspeakably dreadful. Yet Who could endure the sufferings of the Redeemer on the cross for a single day? Who could bear them for ever and ever, aggravated by all the horrors of a guilty conscience, and all the terrors of unrestrained anger, and hate, and fear, and wrath? Why WILL the wicked die?

{a} "For if they" Pr 11:31; Jer 25:29; Eze 20:47; 21:4; 1 Pe 4:17

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 32

Verses 32,33. See Barnes "Mt 27:35"

See Barnes "Mt 27:38"

Verse 32. No Barnes text on this verse.

{b} "malefactors" Is 53:12

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 33

Verse 33. No Barnes text on this verse.

{2} "Calvary", or "the place of a skull"

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 34

Verse 34. Father, forgive them. This is a fulfillment of the prophecy in Isa 53:12: He made intercession for the transgressors. The prayer was offered for those who were guilty of putting him to death. It is not quite certain whether he referred to the Jews or to the Roman soldiers. Perhaps he referred to both. The Romans knew not what they did, as they were really ignorant that he was the Son of God, and as they were merely obeying the command of their rulers. The Jews knew, indeed, that he was innocent, and they had evidence, if they would have looked at it, that he was the Messiah; but they did not know what would be the effect of their guilt; they did not know what judgments and calamities they were bringing down upon their country. It may be added, also, that, though they had abundant evidence, if they would look at it, that he was the Messiah, and enough to leave them without excuse, yet they did not, in fact, believe that he was the Saviour promised by the prophets, and had not, in fact, any proper sense of his rank and dignity as "the Lord of glory." If they had had, they would not have crucified him, as we cannot suppose that they would knowingly put to death their own Messiah, the hope of the nation, and him who had been so long promised to the fathers. See Barnes "1 Co 2:8".

We may learn from this prayer--

1st. The duty of praying for our enemies, even when they are endeavouring most to injure us.

2nd. The thing for which we should pray for them is that God would pardon them and give them better minds.

3rd. The power and excellence of the Christian religion. No other religion teaches men to pray for the forgiveness of enemies; no other disposes them to do it. Men of the world seek for revenge; the Christian bears reproaches and persecutions with patience, and prays that God would pardon those who injure them, and save them from their sins.

4th. The greatest sinners, through the intercession of Jesus, may obtain pardon. God heard him, and still hears him always, and there is no reason to doubt that many of his enemies and murderers obtained forgiveness and life. Comp. Ac 2:37,42-43; 7:7; 14:1.

They know not what they do. It was done through ignorance, Ac 3:17. Paul says that,

"had they known it, they would not have crucified

the Lord of glory,"

1 Co 2:8. Ignorance does not excuse altogether a crime if the ignorance be wilful, but it diminishes its guilt. They had evidence; they might have learned his character; they might have known what they were doing, and they might be held answerable for all this. But Jesus here shows the compassion of his heart, and as they were really ignorant, whatever might have been the cause of their ignorance, he implores God to pardon them. He even urges it as a reason why they should be pardoned, that they were ignorant of what they were doing; and though men are often guilty for their ignorance, yet God often in compassion overlooks it, averts his anger, and grants them the blessings of pardon and life. So he forgave Paul, for he

"did it in ignorance, in unbelief,"

1 Ti 1:13. So God winked at the ignorance of the Gentiles, Ac 17:30. Yet this is no excuse, and no evidence of safety, for those who in our day contemptuously put away from them and their children the means of instruction.

{c} "Father, forgive them" Mt 5:44; Ac 7:60; 1 Co 4:12

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 35

Verses 35-39. See Barnes "Mt 27:41, also Mt 27:42-44

Verse 35. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 36

Verse 36. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 37

Verse 37. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 38

Verse 38. In letters of Greek, &c. See Barnes "Mt 27:37"

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 39

Verse 39. One of the malefactors. Mt 27:44 says "the thieves-- cast the same in his teeth." See the apparent contradiction in these statements reconciled in the Notes on that place.

If thou be Christ. If thou art the Messiah; if thou art what thou dost pretend to be. This is a taunt or reproach of the same kind as that of the priests in Lu 23:35.

Save thyself and us. Save our lives. Deliver us from the cross. This man did not seek for salvation truly; he asked not to be delivered from his sins; if he had, Jesus would also have heard him. Men often, in sickness and affliction, call upon God. They are earnest in prayer. They ask of God to save them, but it is only to save them from temporal death. It is not to be saved from their sins, and the consequence is, that when God does raise them up, they forget their promises, and live as they did before, as this robber would have done if Jesus had heard his prayer and delivered him from the cross.

{e} "one of the malefactors" Lu 17:34-36

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 40

Verse 40. Dost not thou fear God, &c. You are condemned to die as well as he. It is improper for you to rail on him as the rulers and Romans do. God is just, and you are hastening to his bar, and you should therefore fear him, and fear that he will punish you for railing on this innocent man.

Same condemnation. Condemnation to death; not death for the same thing, but the same kind of death.

{f} "Dost not thou" Ps 36:1

{g} "thou art in the same condition" Jer 5:3

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 41

Verse 41. Due reward for our deeds. The proper punishment for our crimes. They had been highwaymen, and it was just that they should die.

{h} "hath done nothing amiss" 1 Pe 1:19.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 42

Verse 42. Remember me. This is a phrase praying for favour, or asking him to grant him an interest in his kingdom, or to acknowledge him as one of his followers. It implied that he believed that Jesus was what he claimed to be--the Messiah; that, though he was dying with them, yet he would set up his kingdom; and that he had full power to bless him, though about to expire. It is possible that this man might have heard him preach before his crucifixion, and have learned there the nature of his kingdom; or it may have been that while on the cross Jesus had taken occasion to acquaint them with the nature of his kingdom. While he might have been doing this, one of the malefactors may have continued to rail on him while the other became truly penitent. Such a result of preaching the gospel would not have been unlike what has often occurred since, where, while the gospel has been proclaimed, one has been "taken and another left;" one has been melted to repentance, another has been more hardened in guilt. The promise which follows shows that this prayer was answered. This was a case of repentance in the last hour, the trying hour of death; and it has been remarked that one was brought to repentance there, to show that no one should despair on a dying bed; and but one, that none should be presumptuous and delay repentance to that awful moment.

When thou comest, &c. It is impossible now to fix the precise idea which this robber had of Christ's coming. Whether it was that he expected that he would rise from the dead, as some of the Jews supposed the Messiah would; or whether he referred to the day of judgment; or whether to an immediate translation to his kingdom in the heavens, we cannot tell. All that we know is, that he fully believed him to be the Messiah, and that he desired to obtain an interest in that kingdom which he knew he would establish.

{i} "Lord" Ps 106:4,5; Ro 10:9,10; 1 Co 6:10,11

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 43

Verse 43. Today, &c. It is not probable that the dying thief expected that his prayer would be so soon answeyed. It is rather to be supposed that he looked to some future period when the Messiah would rise or would return; but Jesus told him that his prayer would be answered that very day, implying, evidently, that it would be immediately at death. This is the more remarkable, as those who were crucified commonly lingered for several days on the cross before they died; but Jesus foresaw that measures would be taken to hasten their death, and assured him that that day he should receive an answer to his prayer and be with him in his kingdom.

Paradise. This is a word of Persian origin, and means a garden, particularly a garden of pleasure, filled with trees, and shrubs, and fountains, and flowers. In hot climates such gardens were peculiarly pleasant, and hence they were attached to the mansions of the rich and to the palaces of princes. The word came thus to denote any place of happiness, and was used particularly to denotes the abodes of the blessed in another world. The Romans spoke of their Elysium, and the Greeks of the gardens of Hesperides, where the trees bore golden fruit. The garden of Eden means, also, the garden of pleasure, and in Ge 2:8 the Septuagint renders the word Eden by Paradise. Hence this name in the Scriptures comes to denote the abodes of the blessed in the other world. See Barnes "2 Co 12:4".

The Jews supposed that the souls of the righteous would be received into such a place, and those of the wicked cast down to Gehenna until the time of the judgment. They had many fables about this state which it is unnecessary to repeat. The plain meaning of the passage is,

"To-day thou shalt be made happy, or be received to a state of blessedness with me after death."

It is to be remarked that Christ says nothing about the p1ace where it should be, nor of the condition of those there, excepting that it is a place of blessedness, and that its happiness is to commence immediately after death (see also Php 1:23); but from the narrative we may learn--

1st. That the soul will exist separately from the body; for, while the thief and the Saviour would be in Paradise, their bodies would be on the cross or in the grave.

2nd. That immediately after death--the same day--the souls of the righteous will be made happy. They will feel that they are secure; they will be received among the just; and they will have the assurance of a glorious immortality.

3rd. That state will differ from the condition of the wicked. The promise was made to but one on the cross, and there is no evidence whatever that the other entered there. See also the parable of the rich man and Lazarus, Lu 16:19-31.

4th. It is the chief glory of this state and of heaven to be permitted to see Jesus Christ and to be with him: "Thou shalt be with me." "I desire to depart and to be with Christ," Php 1:23; Re 21:23; 5:9-14.

{k} "verily" Ro 5:20,21

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 44

Verses 44-46. See Barnes "Mt 27:45, also Mt 27:46-50.

Verse 44. No Barnes text on this verse.

{3} "darkness over all the earth" or, "land"

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 45

Verse 45. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 46

Verse 46. No Barnes text on this verse.

{m} "Father, into" Ps 31:5; 1 Pe 2:23

{n} "and having said thus" Mt 27:50; Mr 15:37; Joh 19:30

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 47

Verses 47-49. See Barnes "Mt 27:52, also Mt 27:53-55

Verse 47. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 48

Verse 48. The things which were done. The earthquake, the darkness, and the sufferings of Jesus.

Smote their breasts. In token of alarm, fear, and anguish. They saw the judgments of God; they saw the guilt of the rulers; and they feared the further displeasure of the Almighty.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 49

Verse 49. No Barnes text on this verse.

{o} "stood afar off" Ps 38:11; 142:4

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 50

Verse 50. See Barnes "Mt 27:57, also Mt 27:58-61 See Barnes "Mr 15:42, also Mr 15:43-47.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 51

Verse 51. No Barnes text on this verse.

{p} "who also himself" Mr 15:43; Lu 2:25,38

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 52

Verse 52. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 53

Verse 53. No Barnes text on this verse.

{q} "laid it in" Is 53:9

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 54

Verse 54. No Barnes text on this verse.

{r} "the preparation" Mt 27:62

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 55

Verse 55. No Barnes text on this verse.

{s} "women also" Lu 8:2; Lu 23:49

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 23 - Verse 56

Verse 56. No Barnes text on this verse.

{t} "prepared spices" Mar 16:1

{u} "according to" Ex 20:8-10

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 1

Verses 1-12. See Barnes "Mt 28:1, also Mt 28:2-11.

Verse 1. No Barnes text on this verse.

{a} "Now, upon" Mt 28:1; Mr 16:2; Joh 20:1

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 2

Verse 2. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 3

Verse 3. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 4

Verse 4. No Barnes text on this verse.

{b} "two men" Joh 20:12; Ac 1:10

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 5

Verse 5. No Barnes text on this verse.

{1} "the living", or "him that liveth"

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 6

Verse 6. No Barnes text on this verse.

{c} "spake unto you" Mt 16:21; 17:23; Mr 8:31; Lu 9:22; Joh 2:22

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 7

Verse 7. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 8

Verse 8. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 9

Verse 9. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 10

Verse 10. No Barnes text on this verse.

{d} "Joanna" Lu 8:3

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 11

Verse 11. No Barnes text on this verse.

{e} "seemed to them" Ge 19:14; 2 Ki 7:2; Job 9:16; Ps 126:1; Ac 12:9,15

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 12

Verse 12. No Barnes text on this verse.

{f} "Then arose Peter" Joh 20:3,6

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 13

Verse 13. Two of them. Two of the disciples. The name of one of them was Cleopas, Lu 24:18. Many have supposed that the other was Luke, and that he omitted his own name from modesty. Others have supposed that it was Peter. See Lu 24:34; 1 Co 15:5 There is no evidence to guide us here. Dr. Lightfoot has shown that Cleopas is the same name as Alpheus, who was the father of the apostle James, Mt 10:3.

Emmaus. In regard to the locality of Emmaus, it seems quite probable that it is the same village which is referred to by Josephus (Jewish Wars, vii. 6, § 6), who states that, after the destruction of Jerusalem, Titus gave Emmaus, distant from Jerusalem threescore furlongs, to eight hundred of his troops, whom he had dismissed from his army, for their habitation. Dr. Thomson (The Land and the Book, vol. it. p. 307, 540) regards it as the present Kuriet el 'Aineb, which Dr. Robinson identifies with Kirjath-jearim. Of this place he says:

Kuriet el 'Aineb itself would be the proper distance from Jerusalem, and being on the road to Jaffa, and on the dividing ridge between the plain and the mountains, the Roman emperor might have deemed it an advantageous post for a colony made up of his disbanded soldiers, who could keep in check the surrounding country. Certain it is that in these later ages the occupants of this place have controlled the whole adjacent region, and for many a generation exercised their lawless tyranny upon helpless pilgrims.

It took just three hours' moderate riding from Kuriet el 'Aineb to Jerusalem: first, a long descent into Wady Hanina, which passes between it and Soba; then a similar ascent, succeeded by a very steep pass, and a very slippery path down to Kulonia. At this place are some heavy foundations of church, convent, or castle by the road-side, which may be of almost any age, and also gardens of fruit-trees, irrigated by a fountain of excellent water. Kulonia is on a hill north of the road, and appears in a fair way to become a ruin itself before long. The path then winds up a valley, and stretches over a dreary waste of bare rocks until within a mile of the city, when the view opens upon its naked ramparts and the mysterious regions toward the Dead Sea.

Threescore furlongs. Sixty furlongs, or about seven or eight miles. It is not certain that these were apostles, but the contrary seems to be implied in Lu 24:33. See Barnes on "Lu 24:33".

If they were not, it is probable that they were intimate disciples, who may have been much with the Saviour during the latter part of his ministry and the closing scenes of his life. But it is wholly unknown why they were going to Emmaus. It may have been that this was their native place, or that they had friends in the vicinity. They seem to have given up all for lost, and to have come to the conclusion that Jesus was not the Messiah, though they naturally conversed about it, and there were many things which they could not explain. Their Master had been crucified contrary to their expectation, their hopes dashed, their anticipation disappointed, and they were now returning in sadness, and very naturally conversed, in the way, of the things which had happened in Jerusalem.

{g} "two of them" Mr 16:2

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 14

Verse 14. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 15

Verse 15. Communed together. Talked together.

And reasoned. They reasoned, doubtless, about the probability or improbability that Jesus was the Messiah; about the evidence of his resurrection; about what was to be done in the present state of things.

Jesus himself drew near, &c. The disciples were properly employed. Their minds were anxious about the state of things, and they endeavoured to arrive at the truth. In this state of things Jesus came to solve their doubts, and to establish them in the belief that he was the Christ; and we may learn from this that Christ will guide those who are sincerely endeavouring to know the truth. They who candidly and seriously endeavour to ascertain what is true and right he will direct; and often in an unexpected manner he will appear, to dissipate their doubts and to scatter all their perplexities. Our duty is sincerely to strive to ascertain the truth, and to do his will; and if his people do this, he will not leave them to perplexity and wandering.

{h} "communed" Mal 3:16; Mt 18:20; Lu 24:36

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 16

Verse 16. Their eyes were holden. This expression is used merely to denote that they did not know who he was. It does not appear that there was anything supernatural or miraculous in it, or that God used any power to blind them. It may easily be accounted for without any such supposition; for,

1st. Jesus appeared in another form (Mr 16:12)--that is, different from his usual appearance.

2nd. They were not expecting to see him--indeed, they did not suppose that he was alive and it required the strongest evidence to convince them that he was really risen from the dead.

{i} "holden" Joh 20:14,15; 21:4

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 17

Verse 17. What manner of communications, &c. What is the subject of your conversation? What is it that has so much affected your minds? They were deeply affected in the recollection of the death of Jesus; and, as became all Christians, they were conversing about him, and were sad at the overwhelming events that had come upon them.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 18

Verse 18. Art thou only a stranger? &c. This is an expression of surprise that he should be unacquainted with an affair that had made so much noise, and that had been attended with so remarkable circumstances. The word stranger here denotes one who had come to reside at a place only for a time, not a permanent inhabitant. Many Jews came up from all parts of the world to Jerusalem, to keep the Passover there. They appear to have taken Jesus to be such a stranger or foreigner. The meaning of this verse may be thus expressed:

The affair concerning which we are sad has been well known, and has made a great talk and noise, so that all, even the strangers who have come up to remain there but a little time, are well acquainted with it. Art thou the only one of them who has not heard it? Is everybody so well acquainted with it, and thou hast not heard of it? It is a matter of surprise, and we cannot account for it.

{k} "Cleopas" Joh 19:25

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 19

Verse 19. A prophet. A teacher sent from God. They did not now call him the Messiah, for his death had led them to doubt that, but they had no doubt that he was a distinguished prophet. The evidence of that was so clear that they could not call it in question.

Mighty in deed. Powerful in working miracles, in raising the dead, healing the sick, &c.

In word. In teaching.

Before God and all the people. Manifestly; publicly. So that God owned him, and the people regarded him as a distinguished teacher.

{l} "prophet" Lu 7:16; Joh 3:2; Ac 2:22

{m} "mighty" Ac 7:22

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 20

Verse 20. See Barnes "Mt 26:59, also Mt 26:60-66

{n} "now" Lu 23:1; Ac 13:27,28

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 21

Verse 21. We trusted. We hoped and expected.

Should have redeemed Israel. That he was the Messiah, who would have delivered the nation from the Romans.

Besides all this. It is to be observed that Cleopas states things just as they occurred to his own mind. There is little connection. His mind is confused and distracted. There were so many things that were remarkable in Jesus; there was so much evidence that he was the Messiah; their hopes had been so suddenly dashed by his death, and the succeeding events had been so wonderful, that his mind was confused, and he knew not what to think. The things which he now stated served to increase his perplexity. The expressions here are perfectly natural. They bespeak an agitated mind. They are simple touches of nature, which show that the book was not forged. If the book had been the work of imposture, this artless and perplexed narrative would not have been thought of.

Today is the third day, &c. Jesus had foretold them that he would rise on the third day. This they did not understand; but it is not improbable that they looked to this day expecting something wonderful, and that the visit to the sepulchre had called it to their recollection, and they were more and more amazed when they put all these things together. As if they had said,

"The third day is come, and we have not seen him. Yet we begin to remember his promise--the angels have informed us that he is alive--but we do not know how to put these things together, or what to make of them."

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 22

Verses 22,23. Certain women. See Mt 28:1-7; Joh 20:12

A vision of angels. An appearance of angels, or they had seen angels. See Joh 20:12.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 23

Verse 23. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 24

Verse 24. Certain of them which were with us. Peter and John. See Joh 20:2-9.

{q} "Certain" He 5:11,12

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 25

Verse 25. O fools. The word fool sometimes is a term of reproach denoting wickedness. In this sense we are forbidden to employ it in addressing another, Mt 5:22. That, however, is a different word in the Greek from the one which occurs here. The one there used implies contempt, but the one employed in this place denotes weakness or dulness. He reproached them for not seeing what he had himself so clearly predicted, and what had been foretold by the prophets. The word used in the original does not imply as much reproach as the word fool does among us. It was not an expression of contempt; it was an expression denoting merely that they were thoughtless, and that they did not properly attend to the evidence that he must die and rise again.

Slow of heart to believe. Not quick to perceive. Dull of learning. They had suffered their previous opinions and prejudices to prevent their seeing the evidence that he must die and rise from the dead.

All that the prophets have spoken. Respecting the character and sufferings of the Messiah. See Barnes "Lu 24:27".

{r} "O, fools" He 5:11,12

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 26

Verse 26. Ought not Christ, &c. Ought not the Messiah. Was there not evidence that he would do it? and was it not indispensable that he should, in order to fulfil the prophecies? The necessity of his suffering these things referred to here was that it was foretold that he would. The reason why it was predicted, and why it was necessary that it should occur, was that it was proper that God should manifest his justice, and do honour to his law, and secure the due regard for his government, while he pardoned the guilty.

{s} Lu 24:46; Ac 17:3; He 9:22,23

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 27

Verse 27. Beginning at Moses. At the writings of Moses, or at the beginning of the Old Testament; or rather the word beginning should be separated from what follows, denoting simply that he commenced his discourse, and not that he began at the prophets as well as at Moses; thus, "And commencing his discourse, or replying to them, he expounded from Moses and the prophets," &c.

All the prophets. The books of the Old Testament generally.

He expounded. He explained or interpreted it to them. Probably he showed them that their notions of the Messiah were not according to the Scriptures. They expected a temporal prince; they were perplexed because Jesus had not assumed the regal power, but had been put to death. He showed them that according to the prophecies he ought to suffer, and that his death, therefore, was no argument that he was not the Messiah.

In all the scriptures. In all the writings of the Old Testament. They were called scriptures because they were written, the art of printing being then unknown.

The things concerning himself. Concerning the Messiah. It does not appear that he applied them to himself, but left them, probably, to make the application. He showed what the Scriptures foretold, and they saw that these things applied to Jesus of Nazareth, and began to be satisfied that he was the Messiah. The most striking passages foretelling the character and sufferings of Christ are the following, which we may suppose it possible our Saviour dwelt upon to convince them that, though he was crucified, yet he was the Christ: Ge 3:15; De 18:15; Ge 49:10; Nu 21:8-9; Is 53:1-12; Da 9:25-27; Is 9:6,7; Ps 110:1-7; Ps 16:1-11; Ps 22:1-31; Mal 4:2-6

{u} "Moses" Lu 24:44; Ac 3:22

{v} "the prophets" Ac 10:43; 26:22

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 28

Verse 28. He made as though he would have gone further. He did not say he would go farther, but he kept on as if it was not his intention to stop, and doubtless he would have gone on if they had not constrained him to tarry.

{w} "and he made as though" Ge 32:26; Mr 6:48

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 29

Verse 29. Constrained him. They urged him, or pressingly invited him. They did not yet perceive that it was Jesus, but they had been charmed and delighted with his discourse, and they wished to hear him farther. Christians are delighted with communion with the Saviour. They seek it as the chief object of their desire, and they find their chief pleasure in fellowship with him. The two disciples felt it a privilege to entertain the stranger, as they supposed, who had so charmed them with his discourse; and so those to whom the gospel is preached, and who love it, feel it a privilege, and not a burden, to show kindness to those who bear to them the message of salvation.

Abide with us. Remain with us, or pass the night in our house.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 30

Verse 30. Sat at meat. Reclined at the table, or while he was at supper.

He took bread and blessed it, &c. This was the office of the master of a feast, and perhaps this first attracted particularly their attention. Though he was in their house, yet he acted as master of the feast, as he used to do with them before his death. Perhaps, also, as he gave them the bread, they observed the prints in his hands, and they knew that it was Jesus. This was not a sacramental, but a common supper; yet our Saviour sought a blessing on the food, and thus set an example to all his followers to acknowledge God in their daily gifts, and to seek his benediction in all their enjoyments.

{2} "vanished" or, "ceased to be seen of them"

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 31

Verse 31. Their eyes were opened. The obscurity was removed. They saw him to be the Messiah. Their doubts were gone, and they saw clearly that he was risen, and was truly, as they had long hoped, the Saviour of men. It is not meant that they were before blind, but that they did not know till then who he was.

He vanished out of their sight. He suddenly departed. It does not appear that there was anything miraculous in this, but, during their surprise, he took the opportunity suddenly to withdraw from them.

{2} "vanished" or, "ceased to be seen of them"

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 32

Verse 32. Our heart burn within us. This is an expression denoting the deep interest and pleasure which they had felt in his discourse before they knew who he was. They now recalled his instruction; they remembered how his words reached the heart as he spoke to them; how convincingly he had showed them that the Messiah ought to suffer, and how, while he talked to them of the Christ that they so much loved, their hearts glowed with intense love. This feeling was not confined to them alone. All the followers of Jesus know how precious and tender are the communications of the Saviour, and how the heart glows with love as they think or hear of his life, and sufferings, and death.

He opened to us. He explained to us the Scriptures. See Lu 24:27. This narrative shows us,

1st. How blind men may be to the plainest doctrines of the Scriptures until they are explained to them. These disciples had often read or heard the Scriptures, but never, till then, did they fully understand that the Messiah must suffer.

2nd. It is proper there should be those whose office it is to explain the Scriptures. Jesus did it while on earth; he does it now by his Spirit; and he has appointed his ministers, whose business it is to explain them.

3rd. If men attempt to explain the Bible, they should themselves understand it. They should give their time and talents to a suitable preparation to understand the sacred volume. Preaching should consist in real, and not fancied explanations of the Scriptures; the real doctrines which God has taught in his word, and not the doctrines that men have taught in their systems.

4th. Here was convincing evidence that Jesus was the Messiah. This was but one of many instances where Jesus convinced his disciples, contrary to their previous belief. In this case the evidence was abundant. He first satisfied them from the Old Testament that the very things which had happened were foretold; he then dissipated every doubt by showing himself to them and convincing them that he was truly the Christ. There was no chance here for deception and juggling. Who would have met them and talked with them in this way but the real Saviour? Who would have thought of writing this narrative to help an imposture? What impostor would have recorded the dulness of the disciples as to the plain declarations of the Old Testament, and then have thought of this device to prop up the narrative? Everything about this narrative--its simplicity--its tenderness--its particularity--its perfect nature--its freedom from all appearance of trick--shows that it was taken from real life; and if so, then the Christian religion is true, for here is evidence that Jesus rose from the dead.

{y} "burn" Ps 39:3; Jer 20:9; 23:29

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 33

Verse 33. The same hour. Though it was late, and they had stopped, as they thought, for the night, yet such was their joy that they hastened to tell it to their companions and friends. This was natural and proper, and it shows how quick and ready they who have found the Saviour are to tell it to others. Comp. Joh 1:41-45. Young converts to Christ should hasten to tell their joy, and should not shrink at self-denial to proclaim to others what God hath done for the soul, Ps 66:16.

My lips and cheerful heart, prepare
To make his mercies known:
Come, ye that fear my God, and hear
The wonders he hath done.

When on my head huge sorrows fell,
I sought his heavenly aid;
He saved my sinking soul from hell,
And death's eternal shade.

The eleven. The eleven apostles. Judas was now dead. This shows that the two that went to Emmaus were not apostles.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 34

Verse 34. Saying. The eleven said this.

Hath appeared to Simon. To Peter. It is not known precisely when this happened, as the time and place are not mentioned. Paul has referred to it in 1 Co 15:5, from which it appears that he appeared to Cephas or Peter before he did to any other of the apostles. This was a mark of special love and favour, and particularly, after Peter's denial, it showed how ready he was to pardon, and how willing to impart comfort to those who are penitent, though their sins are great.

{z} "hath appeared" 1 Co 15:5

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 35

Verse 35. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 36

Verses 36,37. Jesus stood in the midst of them. This was when the apostles were assembled, and when they had closed the doors for fear of the Jews, Joh 20:19. It was this fact, as well as his sudden and unexpected appearance, that alarmed them. The doors were shut, and the suddenness of his appearance led them to suppose they had seen a spirit.

Peace be unto you. This was a form of salutation among the Hebrews denoting a wish of peace and prosperity. See Ge 43:23. It was peculiarly appropriate for Jesus, as he had said before his death that he left his peace with them as their inheritance (Joh 14:27), and as they were now alarmed and fearful at their state, and trembling for fear of the Jews, Joh 20:19

{a} "And as they thus spake" Mr 16:14; Joh 20:19

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 37

Verse 37. No Barnes text on this verse.

{b} "supposed they had" Mr 6:49

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 38

Verse 38. Why are ye troubled? Why are you alarmed or frightened?

And why do thoughts, &c. The word thoughts here means doubts or suspicions. It is used in this sense also in 1 Ti 2:8. The doubts which they had were whether he was the Christ. He reproves them for doubting this; for,

1st. The Scriptures had foretold his death

2nd. He had himself repeatedly done it; and,

3rd. They had now the testimony of Peter that he had seen Jesus alive, and of the angels that he was risen. After all this evidence, Jesus reproves them for doubting whether he was truly the Messiah.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 39

Verses 39-43. Behold my hands, &c. Jesus proceeds to give them evidence that he was truly the same person that had been crucified. He first showed them his hands and his feet--still pierced, and with the wounds made by the nails still open. Comp. Joh 20:27. He told them to handle him and see him. He ate before them. All this was to satisfy them that be was not, as they supposed, a spirit. Nor could better evidence have been given. He appealed to their senses, and performed acts which a disembodied spirit could not do.

Handle me. Or touch me; feel of me. Comp. Joh 20:27.

And see. Be convinced, for you could not thus handle a spirit. The object here was to convince them that his body had really come to life.

For a spirit, &c. He appeals here to what they well knew; and this implies that the spirit may exist separate from the body. That was the view of the apostles, and our Saviour distinctly countenances that belief.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 40

Verse 40. No Barnes text on this verse.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 41

Verse 41. Believed not for joy. Their joy was so great, and his appearance was so sudden and unexpected, that they were bewildered, and still sought more evidence of the truth of what they wished to believe. This is nature. We have similar expressions in our language. The news is too good to be true; or, I cannot believe it; it is too much for me.

Any meat. This word does not mean meat in our sense of it, but in the old English sense, denoting anything to eat.

{c} "believed" Ge 45:26

{d} "Have ye" Joh 21:5

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 42

Verse 42. Honey-comb. Honey abounded in Palestine, and was a very common article of food. Bees lived in caves of the rocks, in the hollows of trees, and were also kept as with us. The disciples gave, probably, just what was their own common fare, and what was ready at the time.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 43

Verse 43. No Barnes text on this verse.

{e} "did eat" Ac 10:41

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 44

Verse 44. These are the words. Or this is the fulfilment of what I before told you respecting my death. See Lu 18:33; Mr 10:33.

While I was yet with you. Before my death. While I was with you as a teacher and guide.

In the law of Moses. The five books of Moses-- Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy. Among the Jews this was the first division of the Old Testament, and was called the law.

The prophets. This was the second and largest part of the Hebrew Scriptures. It comprehended the books of Joshua, Judges, 1st and 2nd Samuel, 1st and 2nd Kings, which were called the former prophets; and Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the twelve smaller books from Daniel to Malachi, which were called the latter prophets.

The psalms. The word here used probably means what were comprehended under the name of Hagiographa, or holy writings. This consisted of the Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Song of Solomon, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Daniel, Ezra, and Nehemiah, and the two books of Chronicles. This division of the Old Testament was in use long before the time of Christ, and was what he referred to here; and he meant to say that in each of these divisions of the Old Testament there were prophecies respecting himself. The particular subject before them was his resurrection from the dead. A most striking prediction of this is contained in Ps 16:9-11. Compare it with Ac 2:24-32; 13:35-37.

{f} "These are" Mt 16:21

{g} "that all things" Lu 21:22; Ac 3:18; 13:27,33

{h} "in the prophets" Lu 24:27

{i} "in the Psalms" Ps 22:1

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 45

Verse 45. Opened he their understanding. Enabled them fully to comprehend the meaning of the prophecies which foretold his death and resurrection. They had seen him die, they now saw him risen. Their prejudices were now, by his instructions, and by the facts which they could no longer call in question, removed, and they no longer doubted that he was the Messiah, and that all the facts in the case which had before confounded them could be easily accounted for. Hence we may learn-

1st. That facts, or the farther disclosure of truth, will yet remove the mysteries that we now see in religion.

2nd. That our prejudices and our preconceived opinions are one cause of our seeing so many mysteries in the Bible. If a man is willing to take the plain declarations of the Bible, he will commonly be little perplexed with mysteries.

3rd. That God only can open the mind so as fully to comprehend the Scriptures. He only can overcome our prejudices, open our hearts, and dispose us to receive the ingrafted word with meekness, and with the simplicity of a child. See Ac 16:14; Jas 1:21; Mr 10:15.

4th. The design of God's opening the understanding is that we may be acquainted with the Scriptures. It is not that we may be made wise above what is written, but that we may submit ourselves wholly to the Word of God.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 46

Verse 46. It behoved It became proper or necessary that the Messiah should thus suffer. It was predicted of him, and all things have happened as it was foretold.

{k} "it behoved" Isa 53:3,5; Ac 4:12

{l} "to rise" 1 Pe 1:3

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 47

Verse 47. Repentance. Sorrow for sin and forsaking of it. It was proper that the necessity of repentance should be preached among all nations, for all were sinners. See Ac 17:30.

Remission of sins. Pardon or forgiveness of sins. It should be proclaimed that all men should repent, and that those who are penitent may be pardoned.

In my name. By my command it should be proclaimed that men should repent, and by my merit that they may be pardoned. Pardon is offered by the authority of Christ to ALL nations, and this is a sufficient warrant to offer the gospel to every man.

Beginning at Jerusalem. This was the dwelling of his murderers, and it shows his readiness to forgive the vilest sinners. It was the holy place of the temple, the habitation of God, the place of the solemnities of the ancient dispensation, and it was proper that pardon should be first proclaimed there. This was done--the gospel was first preached there. See Ac 2:1 and following. Paul also, in his travels, preached the gospel first to the Jews, the ancient people of God, offering them pardon through their own Messiah; and, when they rejected it, turned to the Gentiles, Ac 13:46.

{m} "repentance" Ac 5:31; 13:38

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 48

Verse 48. Are witnesses of these things. Of my life, my sufferings, my death, and my resurrection. How solemn was their office--to testify these things to the world, and, in the face of suffering and death, to and proclaim them to all nations! In manner, like all Christians are witnesses for Christ. They are the evidences of his mercy and his love, and they should so live that others may be brought to see and love the Saviour.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 49

Verse 49. The promise of my Father. The promise which the Father had made to them through the Saviour. See Mt 10:19; Joh 14:16,17,26.

The promise was, that they should be aided by the power of the Holy Ghost. He also doubtless referred to the promise of God, made in the days of Joel, respecting the outpouring of the Holy Ghost. See Joe 2:28,29, compared with Ac 2:16-21.

Endued with power from on high. The power which would be given them by the descent of the Holy Ghost --the power of speaking with tongues, of working miracles, and of preaching the gospel with the attending blessing and aid of the Holy Ghost. This was accomplished in the gift of the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost. See Ac 2:1 and following.

{o} "endue" Isa 44:3; Joe 2:28; Ac 2:1-21; 1:8

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 50

Verses 50,51. To Bethany. See Barnes "Mr 16:19".

Bethany was on the eastern declivity of the Mount of Olives, from which our Lord was taken up to heaven, Ac 1:12. Bethany was a favoured place. It was the abode of Martha, and Mary, and Lazarus, and our Saviour delighted to be there. From this place, also, he ascended to his Father and our Father, and to his God and our God.

While he blessed them. While he commanded his benediction to rest upon them; while he assured them of his favour, and commended them to the protection and guidance of God, in the dangers, trials, and conflicts which they were to meet in a sinful and miserable world.

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 51

Verse 51. No Barnes text on this verse.

{p} "carried up" Ac 1:9; Heb 4:14

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 52

Verse 52. They worshipped him. The word worship does not always denote religious homage. See Barnes "Mt 2:11".

Comp. Lu 14:10. But here it is to be remarked,

1st. That they offered this worship to an absent Saviour. It was after he left them and had vanished out of their sight. It was therefore an act of religion, and was the first religious homage that was paid to Jesus after he had left the world.

2nd. If they worshipped an absent Saviour--a Saviour unseen by the bodily eye, it is right for us to do it. It was an example which we may and should follow.

3rd. If worship may be rendered to Jesus, he is divine. See Ex 20:4,5

{q} "worshipped him" Mt 28:9,17

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - Chapter 24 - Verse 53

Verse 53. Were continually in the temple. Until the day of Pentecost--that is, about ten days after. See Ac 2:1-47.

Praising and blessing God. Chiefly for the full proof that the Messiah had come; had redeemed them, and had ascended to heaven. "Thus the days of their mourning were ended." They were filled with happiness at the assurance of redemption, and expressed what every Christian should feel--fulness of joy at the glad tidings that a Saviour has died, and risen, and ascended to God; and an earnest desire to pour forth in the sanctuary prayers and thanksgivings to the God of grace for his mercy to a lost and ruined world.

{r} "praising" Ac 2:46,47; 5:42

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